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Nutritional Supplement

Vitamin E

  • Negative Interactions

    1
    • Vitamin E

      Aspirin

      Potential Negative Interaction

      Although vitamin E is thought to act like a blood thinner, very little research has supported this idea. In fact, a double-blind trial found that very high amounts of vitamin E do not increase the effects of the powerful blood-thinning drug warfarin. Nonetheless, a double-blind study of smokers found the combination of aspirin plus 50 IU per day of vitamin E led to a statistically significant increase in bleeding gums compared with taking aspirin alone (affecting one person in three versus one in four with just aspirin). The authors concluded that vitamin E might, especially if combined with aspirin, increase the risk of bleedings.

      Aspirin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Kim JM, White RH. Effect of vitamin E on the anticoagulant response to warfarin. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:545-6.
      2. Liede KE, Haukka JK, Saxén LM, Heinon OP. Increased tendency towards gingival bleeding caused by joint effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation and acetylsalicylic acid. Ann Med 1998;30:542-6.
  • Supportive Interactions

    68
    • Vitamin E

      Carbamazepine

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs might supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to help prevent a deficiency.

      Carbamazepine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Vitamin E

      Cholestyramine

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Bile acid sequestrants may prevent absorption of folic acid and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Other medications and vitamin supplements should be taken one hour before or four to six hours after bile acid sequestrants for optimal absorption. Animal studies suggest calcium and zinc may also be depleted by taking cholestyramine.

      Cholestyramine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 221-2 [review].
      2. Threlkeld DS, ed. Diuretics and Cardiovasculars, Antihyperlipidemic Agents, Bile Acid Sequestrants. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1997, 171i-l.
      3. Watkins DW, Cassidy MM, Khalafi R, Vahouny GV. Calcium and zinc balances in rats chronically fed the bile salt-sequestrant cholestyramine (Questran). Fed Proc 1983;42:819.
    • Vitamin E

      Colesevelam

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Bile acid sequestrants may prevent absorption of folic acid and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Other medications and vitamin supplements should be taken one hour before or four to six hours after bile acid sequestrants for optimal absorption. Animal studies suggest calcium and zinc may also be depleted by taking cholestyramine.

      Colesevelam
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 221-2 [review].
      2. Threlkeld DS, ed. Diuretics and Cardiovasculars, Antihyperlipidemic Agents, Bile Acid Sequestrants. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1997, 171i-l.
      3. Watkins DW, Cassidy MM, Khalafi R, Vahouny GV. Calcium and zinc balances in rats chronically fed the bile salt-sequestrant cholestyramine (Questran). Fed Proc 1983;42:819.
    • Vitamin E

      Colestipol

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Bile acid sequestrants, including colestipol, may prevent absorption of folic acid and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. People taking colestipol should consult with their doctor about vitamin malabsorption and supplementation. People should take other drugs and vitamin supplements one hour before or four to six hours after colestipol to improve absorption.

      Animal studies suggest calcium and zinc may be depleted by taking cholestyramine, another bile acid sequestrant. Whether these same interactions would occur with colestipol is not known.

      Colestipol
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 224 [review].
      2. Threlkeld DS, ed. Cardiovascular Drugs, Antihyperlipidemic Agents, Bile Acid Sequestrants. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 171L.
      3. Threlkeld DS(ed). Cardiovascular Drugs, Antihyperlipidemic Agents, Bile Acid Sequestrants. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 171L.
      4. Watkins DW, Cassidy MM, Khalafi R, Vahouny GV. Calcium and zinc balances in rats chronically fed the bile salt-sequestrant cholestyramine (Questran). Fed Proc 1983;42:819.
    • Vitamin E

      Felbamate

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs might supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to help prevent a deficiency.

      Felbamate
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Vitamin E

      Gemfibrozil

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      In a randomized study of 21 men with combined hyperlipidemia, ten to twelve weeks of gemfibrozil therapy reduced alpha- and gamma-tocopherol blood levels to the levels seen in healthy men. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown and may reflect a normal physiological response to a reduction in serum cholesterol levels.

      Gemfibrozil
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Aberg F, Appelkvist EL, Broijersen A, et al. Gemfibrozil-induced decrease in serum ubiquinone and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol levels in men with combined hyperlipidaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 1998;28:235-42.
    • Vitamin E

      Isoniazid

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Isoniazid may interfere with the activity of other nutrients, including vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin E, folic acid, calcium, and magnesium. People should consider using a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement during isoniazid therapy.

      Isoniazid
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 231-2 [review].
      2. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago, Precept Press, 1998, 146-7.
    • Vitamin E

      Levetiracetam

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs might supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to help prevent a deficiency.

      Levetiracetam
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Vitamin E

      Mineral Oil

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Mineral oil has interfered with the absorption of many nutrients, including beta-carotene, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamins A, D, K, and E in some, but not all, research. Taking mineral oil on an empty stomach may reduce this interference. It makes sense to take a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement two hours before or after mineral oil. It is important to read labels, because many multivitamins do not contain vitamin K or contain inadequate (less than 100 mcg per day) amounts.

      Mineral Oil
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 176.
      2. Clark JH, Russell GJ, Fitzgerald JF, Nagamori KE. Serum beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels during mineral oil therapy for constipation. Am J Dis Child 1987;141:1210-2.
    • Vitamin E

      Orlistat

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Taking orlistat dramatically reduces the absorption of vitamin E, which might result in deficiency symptoms. Therefore, people taking orlistat for long periods of time should supplement with vitamin E.

      Orlistat
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 2693-6.
    • Vitamin E

      Oxcarbazepine

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs might supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to help prevent a deficiency.

      Oxcarbazepine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Vitamin E

      Phenytoin

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs should probably supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to prevent a deficiency.

      Phenytoin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Vitamin E

      Primidone

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs might supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to help prevent a deficiency.

      Primidone
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Vitamin E

      Topiramate

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs might supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to help prevent a deficiency.

      Topiramate
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Vitamin E

      Valproate

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. It is not known whether this same interaction occurs with valproic acid. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs should probably supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to prevent a deficiency.

      On the basis of the biochemical actions of valproic acid, it has been suggested that people taking valproic acid should make sure they have adequate intakes of vitamin E and selenium. The importance of supplementation with either nutrient has not yet been tested, however.

      Valproate
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
      3. Nurge ME, Anderson CR, Bates E. Metabolic and nutritional implications of valproic acid. Nutr Res 1991;11:949-60.
    • Vitamin E

      Zonisamide

      Replenish Depleted Nutrients

      Two studies showed that individuals taking phenytoin and phenobarbital had lower blood vitamin E levels than those who received no treatment for seizures. Though the consequences of lower blood levels of vitamin E are unknown, people taking multiple anticonvulsant drugs might supplement with 100 to 200 IU of vitamin E daily to help prevent a deficiency.

      Zonisamide
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Higashi A, Tamari H, Ikeda T, et al. Serum vitamin E concentration in patients with severe multiple handicaps treated with anticonvulsants. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York) 1980;1:129-34.
      2. Higashi A, Ikeda T, Matsukura M, Matsuda I. Serum zinc and vitamin E concentrations in handicapped children treated with anticonvulsants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982;5:109-13.
    • Tocotrienols

      Anastrozole

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Anastrozole
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Vitamin E

      AZT

      Support Medicine

      Animal studies suggest that vitamin E may improve the efficacy of AZT. The practical importance of this finding remains unclear.

      AZT
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Gogu SR, Beckman BS, Rangan SR, Agrawal KC. Increased therapeutic efficacy of zidovudine in combination with vitamin E. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989;165:401-7.
    • Tocotrienols

      Bicalutamide

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Bicalutamide
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Vitamin E

      Cyclosporine

      Support Medicine

      Twenty-six liver transplant patients (both adults and children) unable to achieve or maintain therapeutic cyclosporine blood levels during the early post-transplant period were given water-soluble vitamin E in the amount of 6.25 IU/2.2 pounds of body weight two times per day. Addition of vitamin E in the early post-transplant period reduced the required amount of cyclosporine and the cost of cyclosporine therapy by 26%. These results imply that the addition of vitamin E to established cyclosporine therapy allows for a decrease in the amount of cyclosporine. Combining vitamin E and cyclosporine requires medical supervision to avoid cyclosporine toxicity.

      Cyclosporine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Pan SH, Lopez RR Jr, Sher LS, et al. Enhanced oral cyclosporine absorption with water-soluble vitamin E early after liver transplantation. Pharmacotherapy 1996;16:59-65.
    • Tocotrienols

      Diethylstilbestrol

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Diethylstilbestrol
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Tocotrienols

      Estramustine

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Estramustine
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Vitamin E

      Griseofulvin

      Support Medicine

      Adding 50 IU of vitamin E per day was reported to increase blood levels of this drug within four weeks in children, allowing the drug dose to be cut in half. Reducing the amount of griseofulvin should decrease the likelihood of side effects. This evidence is preliminary, so people taking griseofulvin should not supplement vitamin E on their own but may wish to discuss this matter with their doctor.

      Griseofulvin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Anonymous. Vitamin E boosts griseofulvin. Mycol Observer Nov/Dec 1990:8.
    • Tocotrienols

      Leuprolide

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Leuprolide
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Tocotrienols

      Megestrol

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Megestrol
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Tocotrienols

      Nilutamide

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Nilutamide
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Vitamin E

      Pentoxifylline

      Support Medicine

      The combination of vitamin E and pentoxifylline has been used successfully to reduce damage to normal tissues caused by radiation therapy.

      Pentoxifylline
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Delanian S, Balla-Mekias S, Lefaix JL. Striking regression of chronic radiotherapy damage in a clinical trial of combined pentoxifylline and tocopherol. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:3283-90.
    • Vitamin E

      Sodium Fluoride

      Support Medicine

      Vitamin E increases the resistance of tooth enamel to acids that cause cavities, and test tube studies show that fluoride, when added to vitamin E, enhances this effect. Controlled research is needed to determine whether people might develop fewer cavities when taking vitamin E and fluoride together.

      Sodium Fluoride
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Yu H, Oho T, Xu LX. Effects of several tea components on acid resistance of human tooth enamel. J Dent 1995;23:101-5.
    • Tocotrienols

      Tamoxifen

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Tamoxifen
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Tocotrienols

      Testolactone

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Testolactone
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Tocotrienols

      Toremifene

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Toremifene
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Tocotrienols

      Triptorelin Pamoate

      Support Medicine

      Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E that are found in palm oil. Test tube studies have shown that tocotrienols enhance the effects of tamoxifen. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether supplementing with tocotrienols might enhance the anticancer effects of tamoxifen.

      Triptorelin Pamoate
      Tocotrienols
      ×
      1. Guthrie N, Gapor A, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr 1997;127:544S-8S.
    • Vitamin E

      Amiodarone

      Reduce Side Effects

      Test tube research on human lung tissue suggests that vitamin E might reduce lung toxicity caused by amiodarone. More research is needed to further investigate this possibility.

      Amiodarone
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Kachel DL, Moyer TP, Martin WJ 2d. Amiodarone-induced injury of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells: Protection by alpha-tocopherol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990;254:1107-12.
    • Vitamin E

      Anthralin

      Reduce Side Effects

      Anthralin can cause inflammation of the skin. A preliminary study found that topical use of vitamin E was able to protect against this side effect. This report used a tocopherol form of the vitamin rather than tocopheryl. This makes sense, as there is no conclusive proof that the tocopheryl forms (which require an enzyme to split vitamin E from the fatty acid to which it is attached) have any activity on the skin.

      Anthralin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Finnen MJ, Lawrence CM, Shuster S. Inhibition of dithranol inflammation by free-radical scavengers. Lancet 1984;ii:1129-30.
    • Vitamin E

      Atorvastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Atorvastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Vitamin E

      Capecitabine

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Capecitabine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Carboplatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      Chemotherapy frequently causes mouth sores. In one trial, people were given approximately 400,000 IU of beta-carotene per day for three weeks and then 125,000 IU per day for an additional four weeks. Those taking beta-carotene still suffered mouth sores, but the mouth sores developed later and tended to be less severe than mouth sores that formed in people receiving the same chemotherapy without beta-carotene.

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. Applying vitamin E only once per day was helpful to only some groups of patients in another trial, and not all studies have found vitamin E to be effective. Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Carboplatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Mills EE. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. BrJ Cancer 1988;57:416-7.
      2. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      3. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      4. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on Adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982;393:411-8.
      5. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      6. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Cerivastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Cerivastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Vitamin E

      Cisplatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. Applying vitamin E only once per day was helpful to only some groups of patients in another trial, and not all studies have found vitamin E to be effective. Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Cisplatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on Adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982;393:411-8.
      4. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      5. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Cladribine

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Cladribine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Cyclophosphamide

      Reduce Side Effects

      Chemotherapy can injure cancer cells by creating oxidative damage. As a result, some oncologists recommend that patients avoid supplementing antioxidants if they are undergoing chemotherapy. Limited test tube research occasionally does support the idea that an antioxidant can interfere with oxidative damage to cancer cells. However, most scientific research does not support this supposition.

      Cyclophosphamide requires activation by the liver through a process called oxidation. In theory, antioxidant nutrients (vitamin A, vitamin E, beta-carotene and others) might interfere with the activation of cyclophosphamide. There is no published research linking antioxidant vitamins to reduced cyclophosphamide effectiveness in cancer treatment. In a study of mice with vitamin A deficiency, vitamin A supplementation enhanced the anticancer action of cyclophosphamide. Another animal research report indicated that vitamin C may increase the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide without producing new side effects. Preliminary human research found that adding antioxidants (beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E) to cyclophosphamide therapy increased the survival of people with small-cell lung cancer treated with cyclophosphamide. It is too early to know if adding antioxidants to cyclophosphamide for cancer treatment is better than cyclophosphamide alone. Vitamin A can be toxic in high amounts.

      Cyclophosphamide
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Witenberg B, Kalir HH, Raviv Z, et al. Inhibition by ascorbic acid of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;57:823-32.
      2. Ghosh J, Das S. Role of vitamin A in prevention and treatment of sarcoma 180 in mice. Chemotherapy 1987;33:211-8.
      3. Taper HS et al. Non-toxic potentiation of cancer chemotherapy by combined C and K3 vitamin pre-treatment. Int J Cancer 1987;40:575-9.
      4. Jaakkola K, Lahteenmaki P, Laakso J, et al. Treatment with antioxidant and other nutrients in combination with chemotherapy and irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res 1992;12:599-606.
    • Vitamin E

      Cytarabine

      Reduce Side Effects

      Chemotherapy frequently causes mouth sores. In one trial, people were given approximately 400,000 IU of beta-carotene per day for three weeks and then 125,000 IU per day for an additional four weeks. Those taking beta-carotene still suffered mouth sores, but the mouth sores developed later and tended to be less severe than mouth sores that formed in people receiving the same chemotherapy without beta-carotene.

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. Applying vitamin E only once per day was helpful to only some groups of patients in another trial, and not all studies have found vitamin E to be effective. Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Cytarabine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Mills EE. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. BrJ Cancer 1988;57:416-7.
      2. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      3. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      4. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on Adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982;393:411-8.
      5. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      6. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin C and Vitamin E

      Dapsone

      Reduce Side Effects

      In large amounts, dapsone causes oxidative damage to red blood cells. This damage may be reduced by using lower amounts of dapsone. Fifteen people who took dapsone for dermatitis herpetiformis were given 800 IU of vitamin E per day for four weeks, followed by four weeks with 1,000 mg of vitamin C per day, followed by four weeks of vitamin E and vitamin C together. The authors reported only vitamin E therapy offered some protection against dapsone-induced hemolysis.

      Dapsone
      Vitamin C and Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Prussick R, Ali MAMA, Rosenthal D, Guyatt G. The protective effect of vitamin E on the hemolysis associated with Dapsone treatment in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:210-3.
    • Vitamin E

      Doxorubicin

      Reduce Side Effects

      Animal studies show that the antioxidant activity of vitamin E protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Test tube evidence suggests that vitamin E might also enhance the anticancer action of the drug. Human trials exploring the cardioprotective action of vitamin E in people taking doxorubicin remain inconclusive; however, some evidence suggests that vitamin E may allow for higher drug doses without increasing toxicity.

      Anecdotal reports indicate that very high (1,600 IU) amounts of vitamin E may reduce the amount of hair loss accompanying use of doxorubicin. However, while protection against hair loss was confirmed in a rabbit study, human research has not found this to be true.

      Doxorubicin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Myers C, McQuire W, Young R. Adriamycin® amelioration of toxicity by alpha-tocopherol. Cancer Treat Rep 1976;60:961-2.
      2. Sonneveld P. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on the cardiotoxicity of Adriamycin® in the rat. Cancer 1978;62:1033-6.
      3. Ripoll EAP, Rama BN, Webber MM. Vitamin E enhances the chemotherapeutic effects of Adriamycin® on human prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. J Urol 1986;136:529-31.
      4. Weijl NI, Cleton FJ, Osanto S. Free radicals and antioxidants in chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer Treatment Rev 1997;23:209-40 [review].
      5. Wood LA. Possible prevention of Adriamycin®-induced allopecia by tocopherol. N Engl J Med 1985;312:1060 [letter].
    • Vitamin E

      Erlotinib

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Erlotinib
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Erythromycin-Benzoyl Peroxide

      Reduce Side Effects

      Animal studies show that benzoyl peroxide promotes tumor growth, yet the significance of this finding in humans is unknown. A test tube study showed that when exposed to vitamin E, human skin cells were more resistant to damage caused by benzoyl peroxide. Controlled research is needed to determine whether use of benzoyl peroxide products by humans promotes tumor growth and whether vitamin E might prevent this damage.

      Erythromycin-Benzoyl Peroxide
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Babich H, Zucherbraun HL, Wurzburger BJ, et al. Benzoyl peroxide cytotoxicity evaluated in vitro with human keratinocyte cell line, RHEK-1. Toxicology 1996;106:187-96.
    • Vitamin C and Vitamin E

      Fenofibrate

      Reduce Side Effects

      Several studies have shown that fenofibrate enhances the toxic effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, which might result in side effects such as skin rashes. One controlled study showed that taking 2 grams of vitamin C and 1,000 IU of vitamin E prior to ultraviolet exposure dramatically blocked UV-fenofibrate damage to red blood cells. though further controlled studies are needed, people taking fenofibrate should probably supplement with vitamins C and E until more information is available.

      Fenofibrate
      Vitamin C and Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Phototoxic lysis of erythrocytes from humans is reduced after oral intake of ascorbic acid and d-alpha-tocopherol. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1997;13:173-7.
    • Vitamin E

      Floxuridine

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Floxuridine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Fludarabine

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Fludarabine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Fluvastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Fluvastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C

      Haloperidol

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a preliminary trial, daily supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids (360 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid plus 240 mg of docosahexaenoic acid), 800 IU of vitamin E, and 1,000 mg of vitamin C for four months decreased the severity of abnormal movements (akathisia) caused by haloperidol.

      Haloperidol
      Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C
      ×
      1. Sivrioglu EY, Kirli S, Sipahioglu D, et al. The impact of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins E and C supplementation on treatment outcome and side effects in schizophrenia patients treated with haloperidol: an open-label pilot study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007;31:1493-9.
    • Vitamin E

      Haloperidol

      Reduce Side Effects

      Haloperidol and related antipsychotic drugs can cause a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. Several double-blind studies suggest that vitamin E may be beneficial for treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Taking the large amount of 1,600 IU per day of vitamin E simultaneously with antipsychotic drugs has also been shown to lessen symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. It is unknown if combining vitamin E with haloperidol could prevent tardive dyskinesia.

      Haloperidol
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Adler LA, Peselow E, Rotrosen J, et al. Vitamin E treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:1405-7.
      2. Adler LA, Edson R, Lavori P, et al. Long-term treatment effects of vitamin E for tardive dyskinesia. Biol Psychiatry 1998;43:868-72.
    • Vitamin E

      Hydroxyurea

      Reduce Side Effects

      Chemotherapy frequently causes mouth sores. In one trial, people were given approximately 400,000 IU of beta-carotene per day for three weeks and then 125,000 IU per day for an additional four weeks. Those taking beta-carotene still suffered mouth sores, but the mouth sores developed later and tended to be less severe than mouth sores that formed in people receiving the same chemotherapy without beta-carotene.

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. Applying vitamin E only once per day was helpful to only some groups of patients in another trial, and not all studies have found vitamin E to be effective. Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Hydroxyurea
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Mills EE. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. BrJ Cancer 1988;57:416-7.
      2. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      3. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      4. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on Adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982;393:411-8.
      5. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      6. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Irinotecan

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Irinotecan
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Isotretinoin

      Reduce Side Effects

      Preliminary research has found that combined administration of isotretinoin and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) substantially reduces the initial toxicity of high-dose isotretinoin without reducing drug efficacy. Additional research is needed to further clarify this potentially beneficial interaction.

      Isotretinoin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Dimery IW, Hong WK, Lee JJ, et al. Phase I trial of alpha-tocopherol effects on 13-cis-retinoic acid toxicity. Ann Oncol 1997;8:85-9.
    • Vitamin E

      Lindane

      Reduce Side Effects

      Test tube studies reveal that vitamin E protects white blood cells from damage caused by lindane. Lindane is known to promote the formation of tumors, and more research is needed to determine whether vitamin E, when applied at the same time as lindane, can prevent this adverse effect.

      Lindane
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Podstawka U, Grabarczyk M, Kopec-Szlezak J. Vitamin E protects human leucocytes against toxic effects of lindane in vitro. Mater Med Pol 1991;23:285-9.
      2. Dich J, Zahn SH, Hanberg A, Adami HO. Pesticides and cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1997;8:420-43.
    • Vitamin E

      Lovastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Lovastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Vitamin E

      Mercaptopurine

      Reduce Side Effects

      Chemotherapy frequently causes mouth sores. In one trial, people were given approximately 400,000 IU of beta-carotene per day for three weeks and then 125,000 IU per day for an additional four weeks. Those taking beta-carotene still suffered mouth sores, but the mouth sores developed later and tended to be less severe than mouth sores that formed in people receiving the same chemotherapy without beta-carotene.

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. Applying vitamin E only once per day was helpful to only some groups of patients in another trial, and not all studies have found vitamin E to be effective. Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Mercaptopurine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Mills EE. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. BrJ Cancer 1988;57:416-7.
      2. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      3. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      4. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on Adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982;393:411-8.
      5. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      6. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Methotrexate

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Methotrexate
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Paclitaxel

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. Applying vitamin E only once per day was helpful to only some groups of patients in another trial, and not all studies have found vitamin E to be effective. Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form. In another study, supplementation with vitamin E orally (600 IU per day) reduced the incidence of paclitaxel-induced nerve damage.

      Paclitaxel
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on Adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982;393:411-8.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Pitavastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Pitavastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Vitamin E

      Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

      Reduce Side Effects

      Chemotherapy frequently causes mouth sores. In one trial, people were given approximately 400,000 IU of beta-carotene per day for three weeks and then 125,000 IU per day for an additional four weeks. Those taking beta-carotene still suffered mouth sores, but the mouth sores developed later and tended to be less severe than mouth sores that formed in people receiving the same chemotherapy without beta-carotene.

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores. Applying vitamin E only once per day was helpful to only some groups of patients in another trial, and not all studies have found vitamin E to be effective. Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Mills EE. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. BrJ Cancer 1988;57:416-7.
      2. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      3. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      4. Legha SS, Wang YM, Mackay B, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic investigation of the effects of alpha-tocopherol on Adriamycin cardiotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1982;393:411-8.
      5. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      6. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
    • Vitamin E

      Pravastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Pravastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Vitamin E

      Risperidone

      Reduce Side Effects

      Vitamin E along with vitamin B6 was used to treat a side effect of risperidone called neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 74-year-old woman, and results were encouraging. However, whether vitamin E and vitamin B6 supplementation might help prevent this condition in people taking risperidone is unknown.

      Risperidone
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Dursun SM, Oluboka OJ, Devarajan S, Kutcher SP. High-dose vitamin E plus vitamin B6 treatment of risperidone-related neuroleptic malignant syndrome. J Psychopharmacol 1998;12:220-1.
    • Vitamin E

      Rosuvastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Rosuvastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Vitamin E

      Simvastatin

      Reduce Side Effects

      This interaction is based on this drug belonging to a drug class. While this drug may differ from the text and references below, drugs within this class work in a similar way and this interaction is applicable to drugs within the same class.

      Oxidative damage to LDL (“bad”) cholesterol is widely believed to contribute to heart disease. In a double-blind trial, lovastatin was found to increase oxidative damage to LDL cholesterol and vitamin E was reported to protect against such damage, though not to completely overcome the negative effect of lovastatin. This study suggests that people taking lovastatin might benefit from supplemental vitamin E.

      Simvastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Malminiemi O, Solakivi T. Effects of lovastatin therapy on susceptibility of LDL to oxidation durgy alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1541-8.
    • Vitamin E

      Sorafenib

      Reduce Side Effects
      One of the side effects of sorafenib is a severe skin reaction (hand-foot skin syndrome) that often ends treatment. In a preliminary study, supplementing with 300 IU per day of vitamin E produced marked improvement in sorafenib-induced hand-foot skin syndrome within 10 to 12 days, even though the patients continued to take the sorafenib.
      Sorafenib
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Bozkurt Duman B, Kara B, Oguz Kara I, et al. Hand-foot syndrome due to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma treated with vitamin E without dose modification; a preliminary clinical study. J BUON 2011;16:759-64.
    • Vitamin E

      Thioguanine

      Reduce Side Effects

      In a study of chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, six of nine patients who applied vitamin E directly to their mouth sores had complete resolution of the sores compared with one of nine patients who applied placebo. Others have confirmed the potential for vitamin E to help people with chemotherapy-induced mouth sores.Until more is known, if vitamin E is used in an attempt to reduce chemotherapy-induced mouth sores, it should be applied topically twice per day and should probably be in the tocopherol (versus tocopheryl) form.

      In a preliminary study, the addition of oral vitamin E (300 IU per day) to cisplatin chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence of drug-induced damage to the nervous system (neurotoxicity). A similar protective effect was seen in another trial in which 600 IU of vitamin E per day was used.

      Thioguanine
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med 1992;92:481-4.
      2. Lopez I, Goudou C, Ribrag V, et al. Treatment of mucositis with vitamin E during administration of neutropenic antineoplastic agents. Ann Med Intern [Paris] 1994;145:405-8.
      3. Pace A, Savarese A, Picardo M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of vitamin E supplementation in patients treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol2003;21:927-31.
      4. Argyriou AA, Chroni E, Koutras A, et al. Vitamin E for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology2005;64:26-31.
  • Explanation Required

    3
    • Vitamin E

      Cisplatin

      Needs Explanation
      In a double-blind study, Japanese researchers found that the combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)—all antioxidants—protected against chemotherapy-induced heart damage without interfering with the action of the chemotherapy.

       

      Cisplatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wagdi P, Fluri M, Aeschbacher B, et al. Cardioprotection in patients undergoing chemo- and/or radiotherapy for neoplastic disease. Jpn Heart J 1996;37:353-9.
    • Vitamin E

      Paclitaxel

      Needs Explanation
      In a double-blind study, Japanese researchers found that the combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)—all antioxidants—protected against chemotherapy-induced heart damage without interfering with the action of the chemotherapy.
      Paclitaxel
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Wagdi P, Fluri M, Aeschbacher B, et al. Cardioprotection in patients undergoing chemo- and/or radiotherapy for neoplastic disease. Jpn Heart J 1996;37:353-9.
    • Vitamin E

      Simvastatin

      Needs Explanation

      In a study of seven patients with hypercholesterolemia, eight weeks of simvastatin plus vitamin E 300 IU improved markers of blood vessel elasticity more than simvastatin alone.

      Simvastatin
      Vitamin E
      ×
      1. Neunteufl T, Kostner K, Katzenschlager R, et al. Additional benefit of vitamin E supplementation to simvastatin therapy on vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of hypercholesterolemic men. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:711-6.

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75. Burke KE, Burford RG, Combs GF Jr, et al. The effect of topical L-selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1992;9:52-7.

76. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Influence of the application time point. Dermatology 1997;195:248-52.

77. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). A dose response study. Arch Dermatol Res 1996;288:522-6.

78. Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-9.

79. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, et al. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology 1999;198:52-5.

80. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

81. Bartolomucci E. Action of vitamin E on healing of experimental wounds on parenchymatous organs. JAMA 1939;113:1079 [abstract].

82. Ehrlich HP, Tarver H, Hunt TK. Inhibitory effects of vitamin E on collagen synthesis and wound repair. Ann Surg 1972;175:235-40.

83. Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, et al. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil 1986;7:309-12.

84. Bates B. Vitamin E gets an ‘F' for wound healing, scarring. Family Practice News 1996;Sept 1:22.

85. Palmieri B, Gozzi G, Palmieri G. Vitamin E added silicone gel sheets for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Int J Dermatol 1995;34:506-9.

86. Juhlin L, Edqvist LE, Ekman LG, et al. Blood glutathione-peroxidase levels in skin diseases: effect of selenium and vitamin E treatment. Acta Derm Venereol 1982;62:211-4.

87. Ljunghall K, Juhlin L, Edqvist LE, Plantin LO. Selenium, glutathione-peroxidase and dermatitis herpetiformis. Acta Derm Venereol 1984;64:546-7.

88. Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM, Junginger HE, de Vries H. Hydrolysis of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate) in the skin and its UV protecting activity (an in vivo study with the rat). J Photochem Photobiol B 1995;29:45-51.

89. Norkus EP, Bryce GF, Bhagavan HN. Uptake and bioconversion of alpha-tocopheryl acetate to alpha-tocopherol in skin of hairless mice. Photochem Photobiol 1993;57:613-5.

90. Ziaei S, Faghihzadeh S, Sohrabvand F, et al. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of vitamin E in treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;108:1181-3.

91. Ziaei S, Zakeri M, Kazemnejad A. A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. BJOG2005;112:466-9.

92. Perloff WH. Treatment of the menopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1949;58:684-94.

93. Gozan HA. The use of vitamin E in treatment of the menopause. NY State J Med 1952;52:1289.

94. Christy CJ. Vitamin E in menopause: Preliminary report of experimental and clinical study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1945:50:84.

95. Finkler RS. The effect of vitamin E in the menopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1949;9:89-94.

96. Rubenstein BB. Vitamin E diminishes the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Fed Proc 1948;7:106 [abstract].

97. Blatt MHG, Weisbader H, Kupperman HS. Vitamin E and climacteric syndrome: failure of effective control as measured by menopausal index. Arch Intern Med 1953;91:792-9.

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182. Hittner HM, Godio LB, Rudoph AJ, et al. Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1365-71.

183. Runge P, Muller DP, McAllister J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplements can prevent the retinopathy of abetalipoproteinaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 1986;70:166-73.

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187. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.

188. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

189. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

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193. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.

194. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

195. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

196. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.

197. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.

198. Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:753-9.

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203. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433-7.

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207. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

208. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

209. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.

210. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.

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213. Reaven PD, Barnett J, Herold DA, Edelman S. Effect of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1995;18:807.

214. Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:753-9.

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216. Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1503-9.

217. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.

218. Salonen JT, Nyssonen K, Tuomainen T-P, et al. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124-7.

219. Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FJ, Machlin LJ, et al. The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, post coronary and normal subjects. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1171-80.

220. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, et al. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650-6.

221. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433-7.

222. Tütüncü NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8.

223. Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1291-6.

224. Paolisso G, Gambardella A, Galzerano D, et al. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994;343:596 [letter].

225. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

226. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

227. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.

228. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.

229. Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ, et al. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:458-61.

230. Jain SK, McVie R, Smith T. Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1389-94.

231. Reaven PD, Barnett J, Herold DA, Edelman S. Effect of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1995;18:807.

232. Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:753-9.

233. Skrha J, Sindelka G, Kvasnicka J, Hilgertova J. Insulin action and fibrinolysis influenced by vitamin E in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;44:27-33.

234. Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1503-9.

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243. Johnson L, Quinn GE, Abbasi S, et al. Effect of sustained pharmacological vitamin E levels on incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity: A controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr 1989;114:827-38.

244. Raju TN, Langenberg P, Bhutani V, Quinn GE. Vitamin E prophylaxis to reduce retinopathy of prematurity: a reappraisal of published trials. J Pediatr 1997;131:844-50.

245. Hittner HM, Godio LB, Rudoph AJ, et al. Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1365-71.

246. Runge P, Muller DP, McAllister J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplements can prevent the retinopathy of abetalipoproteinaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 1986;70:166-73.

247. De Hoff JB, Ozazewski J. Alpha tocopherol to treat diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1954;37:581-2.

248. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

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255. Rubenstein BB. Vitamin E diminishes the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Fed Proc 1948;7:106 [abstract].

256. Blatt MHG, Weisbader H, Kupperman HS. Vitamin E and climacteric syndrome: failure of effective control as measured by menopausal index. Arch Intern Med 1953;91:792-9.

257. Ziaei S, Kazemnejad A, Zareai M. The effect of vitamin E on hot flashes in menopausal women. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2007;64:204-7.

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344. Shepard RJ. Vitamin E and athletic performance. J Sports Med 1983;23:461-70 [review].

345. Kanter M. Free radicals, exercise and antioxidant supplementation. Proc Nutr Soc 1998;57:9-13 [review].

346. Dekkers JC, Van Doornen LJ, Kemper HC. The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med 1996;21(3):213-38 [review].

347. Jakeman P, Maxwell S. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on muscle function after eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1993;67:426-30.

348. Kaminski M, Boal R. An effect of ascorbic acid on delayed-onset muscle soreness. Pain 1992;50:317-21.

349. Thompson D, Williams C, McGregor SJ, et al. Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001;11:466-81.

350. Thompson D, Williams C, Garcia-Roves P, et al. Post-exercise vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;89:393-400.

351. Itoh H, Ohkuwa T, Yamazaki Y, et al. Vitamin E supplementation attenuates leakage of enzymes following 6 successive days of running training. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:369-74.

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353. Evans WJ. Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:647S-52S [review].

354. Dawson B, Henry GJ, Goodman C, et al. Effect of Vitamin C and E supplementation on biochemical and ultrastructural indices of muscle damage after a 21 km run. Int J Sports Med 2002;23:10-5.

355. Beaton LJ, Allan DA, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Contraction-induced muscle damage is unaffected by vitamin E supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:798-805.

356. Petersen EW, Ostrowski K, Ibfelt T, et al. Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2001;280:C1570-5.

357. Kanter MM, Nolte LA, Holloszy JO. Effects of an antioxidant vitamin mixture on lipid peroxidation at rest and postexercise. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:965-9.

358. Kaikkonen J, Kosonen L, Nyyssonen K, et al. Effect of combined coenzyme Q10 and d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and muscular damage: a placebo-controlled double-blind study in marathon runners. Free Radic Res 1998;29:85-92.

359. Singh A, Failla ML, Deuster PA. Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1994;76:2298-303.

360. Johnston CS, Swan PD, Corte C. Substrate utilization and work efficiency during submaximal exercise in vitamin C depleted-repleted adults. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1999;69:41-4.

361. Gerster H. The role of vitamin C in athletic performance. J Am Coll Nutr 1989;8:636-43 [review].

362. Tiidus PM, Houston ME. Vitamin E status and response to exercise training. Sports Med 1995;20:12-23 [review].

363. Akova B, Surmen-Gur E, Gur H, et al. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle performance in healthy women: role of vitamin E supplementation and endogenous oestradiol. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001;84:141-7.

364. Simon-Schnass I, Pabst H. Influence of vitamin E on physical performance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1988;58:49-54.

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The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.