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Phenylalanine

L-phenylalanine (LPA) serves as a building block for the various proteins that are produced in the body. LPA can be converted to L-tyrosine (another amino acid) and subsequently to L-dopa, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. LPA can also be converted (through a separate pathway) to phenylethylamine, a substance that occurs naturally in the brain and appears to elevate mood.

References

1. Ehrenpreis S. Analgesic properties of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985;192:363-70.

2. Balagot RC, Ehrenpreis S, Kubota K, Greenberg J. Analgesia in mice and humans by D-phenylalanine: Relation to inhibition of enkephalin degradation and enkephalin levels. In: Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG, eds., Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol 5. New York: Raven Press, 1983, 289-93.

3. Gaby AR. Editor's Corner. Northwest Acad Prev Med 1983;July:3, 5, 8.

4. Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld LS, Hoffman J. Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67:436-9.

5. Kitade T, Odahara Y, Shinohara S, et al. Studies on the enhanced effect of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia bu D-phenylalanine (2nd report)—schedule of administration and clinical effects in low back pain and tooth extraction. Acupunct Electrother Res 1990;15:121-35.

6. Ehrenpreis S. Analgesic properties of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985;192:363-70.

7. Guisti P, Carrara M, Cima L, Borin G. Antinociceptive effect of some carboxypeptidase A inhibitors in comparison with D-phenylalanine. Eur J Pharmacol 1985;116:287-92.

8. Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld LS, Hoffman J. D-phenylalanine was not found to exhibit opiod receptor mediated analgesia in monkeys. Pain 1986;26:409-10.

9. Ehrenpreis S, Balagot R, Comaty JE, Myles SB. Naloxonr reversible analgesia in mice produced by D-phenylalanine and hydrocinnamic acid, inhibitors of carboxypeptidase A. In Bonica JJ, et al., eds. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol. 3. New York: Raven Press, 1979.

10. Ehrenpreis S. Pharmacology of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1985;10:203-8.

11. Balagot RC, Ehrenpreis S, Kubota K, Greenberg J. Analgesia in mice and humans by D-phenylalanine: Relation to inhibition of enkephalin degradation and enkephalin levels. In: Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG, eds., Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol 5. New York: Raven Press, 1983, 289-93.

12. Mitchell MJ, Daines GE, Thomas BL. Effect of L-tryptophan and phenylalanine on burning pain threshold. Phys Ther 1987;67:203-5.

13. D'Alessandro R. D-Phenylalanine does not affect nociceptive, flexion reflex thresholds in normal humans. Anesth Analg 1983;62:857-8.

14. Budd K. Use of D-phenylalanine, an enkephalinase inhibitor, in the treatment of intractable pain. In: Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG, eds., Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol 5. New York: Raven Press, 1983, 305-8.

15. Donzelle G, Bernard L, Deumier R, et al. Curing trial of complicated oncologic pain by D-phenylalanine. Anesthesie, Analgesie, Reanimation 1981;38:655-8 [in French].

16. Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld LS, Hoffman J. Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67:436-9.

17. Sicuteri F. Enkephalinase inhibition relieves pain syndromes of central dysnociception (migraine and related headache). Cephalalgia 1981;1:229-32.

18. Kitade T, Minamikawa M, Nawata T, et al. An experimantal study on the enhancing effects of phenylalanine on acupuncture analgesia. Am J Chin Med 1981;9:243-8.

19. Takeshige C, Mera H, Hisamitsu T, et al. Inhibition of the analgesia inhibitory system by D-phenylalanine and proglumide. Brain Res Bull 1991;26:385-91.

20. Kitade T, Odahara Y, Shinohara S, et al. Studies on the enhanced effect of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia by D-phenylalanine (first report)—effect on pain threshold and inhibition by naloxone. Acupunct Electrother Res 1988;13:87-97.

21. Kitade T, Odahara Y, Shinohara S, et al. Studies on the enhanced effect of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia bu D-phenylalanine (2nd report)—schedule of administration and clinical effects in low back pain and tooth extraction. Acupunct Electrother Res 1990;15:121-35.

22. Ehrenpreis S. Analgesic properties of enkephalinase inhibitors: animal and human studies. Prog Clin Biol Res 1985;192:363-70.

23. Balagot RC, Ehrenpreis S, Kubota K, Greenberg J. Analgesia in mice and humans by D-phenylalanine: Relation to inhibition of enkephalin degradation and enkephalin levels. In: Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG, eds., Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol 5. New York: Raven Press, 1983, 289-93.

24. Gaby AR. Editor's Corner. Northwest Acad Prev Med 1983;July:3, 5, 8.

25. Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld LS, Hoffman J. Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67:436-9.

26. Kitade T, Odahara Y, Shinohara S, et al. Studies on the enhanced effect of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia bu D-phenylalanine (2nd report)—schedule of administration and clinical effects in low back pain and tooth extraction. Acupunct Electrother Res 1990;15:121-35.

27. Balagot RC, Ehrenpreis S, Kubota K, Greenberg J. Analgesia in mice and humans by D-phenylalanine: Relation to inhibition of enkephalin degradation and enkephalin levels. In: Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG, eds., Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol 5. New York: Raven Press, 1983, 289-93.

28. Budd K. Use of D-phenylalanine, an enkephalinase inhibitor, in the treatment of intractable pain. In: Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG, eds., Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol 5. New York: Raven Press, 1983, 305-8.

29. Walsh NE, Ramamurthy S, Schoenfeld LS, Hoffman J. Analgesic effectiveness of D-phenylalanine in chronic pain patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67:436-9.

30. Seltzer S, Marcus R, Stoch R. Perspectives in the control of chronic pain by nutritional manipulation. Pain 1981;11:141-8 [review].

31. Balagot RC, Ehrenpreis S, Kubota K, Greenberg J. Analgesia in mice and humans by D-phenylalanine: Relation to inhibition of enkephalin degradation and enkephalin levels. In: Bonica JJ, Liebeskind JC, Albe-Fessard DG, eds., Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol 5. New York: Raven Press, 1983, 289-93.

32. Sabelli HC, Fawcett J, Gustovsky F, et al. Clinical studies on the phenylethylamine hypothesis of affective disorder: urine and blood phenylacetic acid and phenylalanine dietary supplements. J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47:66-70.

33. Beckmann H, Strauss MA, Ludolph E. DL-Phenylalanine in depressed patients: an open study. J Neural Transm 1977;41:123-34.

34. Beckmann H, Athen D, Olteanu M, Zimmer R. DL-phenylalanine versus imipramine: a double-blind controlled study. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 1979;227:49-58.

35. Siddiqui AH, Stolk LM, Bhaggoe R, et al. L-phenylalanine and UVA irradiation in the treatment of vitiligo. Dermatology 1994;188:215-8.

36. Schulpis CH, Antoniou C, Michas T, Strarigos J. Phenylalanine plus ultraviolet light: preliminary report of a promising treatment for childhood vitiligo. Pediatr Dermatol 1989;6:332-5.

37. Camacho F, Mazuecos J. Treatment of vitiligo with oral and topical phenylalanine: 6 years of experience. Arch Dermatol 1999;135:216-7.

38. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CN. Phenylalanine with UVA for the treatment of vitiligo needs more testing for possible side effects. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40:1015 [letter].

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.