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Nutritional Supplement

Glutamine

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (protein building block) in the body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Glutamine is converted to glucose when more glucose is required by the body as an energy source. It serves as a source of fuel for cells lining the intestines. Without it, these cells waste away. It is also used by white blood cells and is important for immune function.

References

1. Campos FG, Waitzberg DL, Logulo AF, et al. The role of glutamine in nutrition in clinical practice. Arq Gastroenterol 1996;33:86-92 [review, in Portugese].

2. O'Flaherty L, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Immunonutrition and surgical practice. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:831-7 [review].

3. Greig JE, Keast D, Garcia-Webb P, Crawford P. Inter-relationships between glutamine and other biochemical and immunological changes after major vascular surgery. Br J Biomed Sci 1996;53:116-21.

4. Morlion BJ, Stehle P, Wachtler P, et al. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Surg 1998;227:302-8.

5. O'Riordain MG, De Beaux A, Fearon KC. Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient. Nutrition 1996;12:S82-4.

6. Jian ZM, Cao JD, Zhu XG, et al. The impact of alanyl-glutamine on clinical safety, nitrogen balance, intestinal permeability, and clinical outcome in postoperative patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 120 patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999;23:S62-6.

7. Morais AA, Santos JE, Faintuch J. Comparative study of arginine and glutamine supplements in malnourished surgical patients. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 1995;50:276-9 [in Portugese].

8. Jones C, Palmer TE, Griffiths RD. Randomized clinical outcome study of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented enteral nutrition. Nutrition 1999;15:108-15.

9. Griffiths RD. Outcome of critically ill patients after supplementation with glutamine. Nutrition 1997;13:752-4 [review].

10. Nieman DC. Exercise and resistance to infection. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:573-80 [review].

11. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:856-62.

12. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:524-32 [review].

13. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:488-90.

14. Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:133-9.

15. Robinson MK, Hong RW, Wilmore DW. Glutathione deficiency and HIV infection. Lancet 1992;339:1603-4.

16. Shabert JK, Wilmore DW. Glutamine deficiency as a cause of human immunodeficiency virus wasting. Med Hypotheses 1996;46:252-6.

17. Noyer CM, Simon D, Borczuk A, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of glutamine therapy for abnormal intestinal permeability in patients with AIDS. Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:972-5 .

18. Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Nutrition 1999;15:860-4.

19. Yalcin SS, Yurdakok K, Tezcan I, Oner L. Effect of glutamine supplementation on diarrhea, interleukin-8 and secretory immunoglobulin A in children with acute diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2004;38:494-501.

20. Salim AS. Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Can J Surg 1993;36(1):53-8.

21. Farinati F, Cardin R, Della Libera G, et al. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia: a phase III pilot study. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:724-33.

22. Houdijk AP, Van Leeuwen PA, Boermeester MA, et al. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases splanchnic blood flow in the rat. Am J Physiol 1994;267(6 Pt 1):G1035-40.

23. Wilmore DW, Smith RJ, O'Dwyer ST, et al. The gut: a central organ after surgical stress. Surgery 1988;104:917-23.

24. Yan R, Sun Y, Sun R. Early enteral feeding and supplement of glutamine prevent occurrence of stress ulcer following severe thermal injury. Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1995;11(3):189-92.

25. Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ, Sliwowski Z, et al. Role of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide-synthase, in gastroprotection and ulcer healing. J Gastroenterol 1997;32(4):442-52.

26. Shive W, Snider RN, DuBilier B, et al. Glutamine in treatment of peptic ulcer. Texas State J Med 1957;Nov:840.

27. Yan R, Sun Y, Sun R. Early enteral feeding and supplement of glutamine prevent occurrence of stress ulcer following severe thermal injury. Chung Hua Cheng Hsing Shao Shang Wai Ko Tsa Chih 1995;11(3):189-92.

28. Antonio J, Street C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes. Can J Appl Physiol 1999;24:1-14 [review].

29. Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Morton AR. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Med 1996;21:80-97 [review].

30. Welbourne TC. Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:1058-61.

31. Macintyre JG. Growth hormone and athletes. Sports Med 1987;4:129-42 [review].

32. Varnier M, Leese GP, Thompson J, et al. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1995;269:E309-15.

33. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, et al. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:157-60.

34. Haub MD, Potteiger JA, Nau KL, et al. Acute L-glutamine ingestion does not improve maximal effort exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1998;38:240-4.

35. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:856-62.

36. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:524-32 [review].

37. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:488-90.

38. Antonio J, Street C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes. Can J Appl Physiol 1999;24:1-14 [review].

39. Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Morton AR. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Med 1996;21:80-97 [review].

40. Welbourne TC. Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:1058-61.

41. Macintyre JG. Growth hormone and athletes. Sports Med 1987;4:129-42 [review].

42. Varnier M, Leese GP, Thompson J, et al. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1995;269:E309-15.

43. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, et al. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res 2002;16:157-60.

44. Haub MD, Potteiger JA, Nau KL, et al. Acute L-glutamine ingestion does not improve maximal effort exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1998;38:240-4.

45. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:856-62.

46. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:524-32 [review].

47. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:488-90.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learn more about TraceGains, the company.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.