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Nutritional Supplement

Chromium

Chromium is an essential trace mineral that helps the body maintain normal blood sugar levels.

References

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2. McIver D, Grizales A, Brownstein J, Goldfine A. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. J Nutr 2015;145:2675–82.

3. Ngala R, Awe M, Nsiah P. The effects of plasma chromium on lipid profile, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A case - control study. PLoS One 2018;13:e0197977.

4. Rajendran K, Manikandan S, Nair L, et al. Serum Chromium Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Its Association with Glycaemic Control. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:Oc05–8.

5. Farrokhian A, Mahmoodian M, Bahmani F, et al. The Influences of Chromium Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease. Biol Trace Elem Res 2019.

6. Huang H, Chen G, Dong Y, et al. Chromium supplementation for adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from a pooled analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 2018;62.

7. Brownley K, Boettiger C, Young L, Cefalu W. Dietary chromium supplementation for targeted treatment of diabetes patients with comorbid depression and binge eating. Med Hypotheses 2015;85:45–8.

8. Anderson RA et al. Chromium supplementation of humans with hypoglycemia. Fed Proc 1984;43:471.

9. Stebbing JB et al. Reactive hypoglycemia and magnesium. Magnesium Bull 1982;2:131-4.

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13. Bai J, Xun P, Morris S, et al. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study. Sci Rep 2015;5:15606.

14. Nussbaumerova B, Rosolova H, Krizek M, et al. Chromium Supplementation Reduces Resting Heart Rate in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Biol Trace Elem Res 2018;183:192–9.

15. Ali A, Ma Y, Reynolds J, et al. Chromium effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract 2011;17:16–25.

16. Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, et al. Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2009;7:143–50.

17. Huang H, Chen G, Dong Y, et al. Chromium supplementation for adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from a pooled analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 2018;62.

18. Lin C, Huang Y. Chromium, zinc and magnesium status in type 1 diabetes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2015;18:588–92.

19. Peruzzu A, Solinas G, Asara Y, et al. Association of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in northern Sardinia, Italy: An observational study. Chemosphere 2015;132:101–7.

20. Gluschenko N, Vasylyshyn K, Roschupkin A, et al. The content of microelements in blood serum and erythrocytes in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 depending on level of glycemic control. Georgian Med News 2016:66–71.

21. Littlefield D. Chromium decreases blood glucose in a patient with diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1368.

22. Fox G, Sabovic Z. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus. J Fam Pract 1998;46:83–6.

23. Ganguly R, Sahu S, Ohanyan V, et al. Oral chromium picolinate impedes hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis and inhibits proatherogenic protein TSP-1 expression in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice. Sci Rep 2017;7:45279.

24. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes1997;46:1786-91.

25. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.

26. Press RI, Geller J, Evans GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects. West J Med 1990;152:41-5.

27. Hermann J, Chung H, Arquitt A, et al. Effects of chromium or copper supplementation on plasma lipids, plasma glucose and serum insulin in adults over age fifty. J Nutr Elderly 1998;18:27-45.

28. Riales R, Albrink MJ. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2670-8.

29. Roeback JR Jr, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917-24.

30. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10.

31. Uusitupa MI, Mykkanen L, Siitonen O, et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. Br J Nutr 1992;68:209-16.

32. Boyd SG, Boone BE, Smith AR, et al. Combined dietary chromium picolinate supplementation and an exercise program leads to a reduction of serum cholesterol and insulin in college-aged subjects. J Nutr Biochem 1998;9:471-5.

33. Wang MM, Fox EA, Stoecker BJ, et al. Serum cholesterol of adults supplemented with brewer's yeast or chromium chloride. Nutr Res 1989;9:989-98.

34. Newman HA, Leighton RF, Lanese RR, Freedland NA. Serum chromium and angiographically determined coronary artery disease. Clin Chem 1978;541-4.

35. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52.

36. Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992;41:768-71.

37. Thomas VL, Gropper SS. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996;55:297-305.

38. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319-27.

39. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10.

40. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.

41. Offenbacher EG, Rinko CJ, Pi-Sunyer FX. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:454-61.

42. Roeback JR Jr, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917-24.

43. Wilson BE, Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995;28:179-84.

44. Page TG, Ward TL, Southern LL. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J Animal Sci 1991;69:356.

45. Lefavi R, Anderson R, Keith R, et al. Efficacy of chromium supplementation in athletes: emphasis on anabolism. Int J Sport Nutr 1992;2:111-22.

46. McCarty MF. The case for supplemental chromium and a survey of clinical studies with chromium picolinate. J Appl Nutr 1991;43:59-66.

47. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev 1998;56:266-70.

48. Vincent J. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent. Sports Med 2003;33:213-30 [review].

49. Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, et al. Effects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. J Appl Physiol 1999;86:29-39.

50. Livolsi JM, Adams GM, Laguna PL. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes. J Strength Cond Res 2001;15:161-6.

51. Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:293-306.

52. Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, Adelman JA. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:747-56.

53. Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:379-88.

54. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev 1998;56:266-70.

55. Crawford V, Scheckenbach R, Preuss HG. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diabetes Obes Metab 1999;1:331-7.

56. Bahadori B, Wallner S, Schneider H, et al. Effect of chromium yeast and chromium picolinate on body composition of obese, non-diabetic patients during and after a formula diet. Acta Med Austriaca 1997;24:185-7

57. Trent LK, Thieding-Cancel D. Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995;35:273-80

58. Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:293-306.

59. Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:522-9.

60. McLeod MN, Gaynes BN, Golden RN. Chromium potentiation of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder in 5 patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:237-40.

61. Sterns DM, Belbruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements. FASEB J 1995;9:1650-7.

62. Sterns DM, Wise JP, Patierno SR, Wetterhahn KE. Chromium (III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. FASEB J 1995;9:1643-9.

63. Speetjens JK, Collins RA, Vincent JB, Woski SA. The nutritional supplement chromium (III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol 1999;12:483-7.

64. Garland M, Morris JS, Colditz GA, et al. Toenail trace element levels and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:653-60.

65. Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Guathier I, et al. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:428-31.

66. Shannon M. Alternative medicines toxicology: a review of selected agents. J Clin Toxicol 1999;37:709-13.

67. Wasser WG, Feldman NS. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:410 [letter].

68. Martin WR, Fuller RE. Suspected chromium picolinate-induced rhabdomyolysis. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:860-2.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.