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Nutritional Supplement

Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant, essential mineral in the human body. Of the two to three pounds of calcium contained in the average body, 99% is located in the bones and teeth. Calcium is needed to form bones and teeth and is also required for blood clotting, transmission of signals in nerve cells, and muscle contraction. The importance of calcium for preventing osteoporosis is probably its most well-known role.

References

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43. Villar J, Repke JT. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163:1124-31.

44. Ritchie LD, King JC. Dietary calcium and pregnancy-induced hypertension: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1371S-4S [review].

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65. Rossignol AM, Bonnlander H. Premenstrual symptoms and beverage consumption. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:1640 [letter].

66. Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, et al. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: Effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:444-52.

67. Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A, et al. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome. J Gen Intern Med 1989;4:183-9.

68. Penland J, Johnson P. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:1417-23.

69. Penland J, Johnson P. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:1417-23.

70. Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, et al. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: Effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:444-52.

71. Baer JT, Taper LJ, Gwazdauskas FG, et al. Diet, hormonal, and metabolic factors affecting bone mineral density in adolescent amenorrheic and eumenorrheic female runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992;32:51-8.

72. Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL, Ho M. Effects of calcium supplementation on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover in lactating women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:464-70.

73. Fagan KM. Pharmacologic management of athletic amenorrhea. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:327-41 [review].

74. Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, et al. Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Med 1995;98:331-5.

75. Hosking DJ, Ross PD, Thompson DE, et al. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss. Clin Ther 1998;20:933-44.

76. Owusu W, Willett WC, Feskanich D, et al. Calcium intake and the incidence of forearm and hip fractures among men. J Nutr 1997;127:1782-7.

77. Rulm LA, Sakhaee K, Peterson R, et al. The effect of calcium citrate on bone density in the early and mid-postmenopausal period: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Ther 1999;6:303-11.

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79. Bonjour JP, Carrie AL, Ferrari S, et al. Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Invest 1997;99:1287-94.

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87. Arasteh K. A beneficial effect of calcium intake on mood. J Orthomolec Med 1994;9:199-204.

88. Krook L, Lutwak L, Whalen JP, et al. Human periodontal disease. Morphology and response calcium therapy. Cornell Vet 1972;62:32-53.

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90. Marshall RW, Cochran M, Hodgkinson A. Relationship between calcium and oxalic acid intake in the diet and their excretion in the urine of normal and renal-stone forming subjects. Clin Sci 1972;43:91-9.

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92. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med 1993;328:833-8.

93. Hassapidou MN, Paraskevopoulos S Th, Karakoltsidis PA, et al. Dietary habits of patients with renal stone disease in Greece. J Human Nutr Dietet 1999;12:47-51.

94. Sowers MFR, Hannausch M, Wood C, et al. Prevalence of renal stones in a population-based study with dietary calcium, oxalate, and medication exposures. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:914-20.

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97. Pak CY. Nephrolithiasis from calcium supplementation. J Urol 1987;137:1212-3 [editorial].

98. Levine BS, Rodman JS, Wienerman S, et al. Effect of calcium citrate supplementation on urinary calcium oxalate saturation in female stone formers: implications for prevention of osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:592-6.

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102. Levenson DI, Bockman RS. A review of calcium preparations. Nutr Rev 1994;52:221-32 [review].

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107. Bolland MJ, Avenell A, Baron JA, et al. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c3691.

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109. Rejnmark L, Avenell A, Masud T, et al. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality: patient level pooled analysis of 70,528 patients from eight major vitamin D trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;May 17 [Epub ahead of print].

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.

Copyright © 2019 Healthnotes, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.