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Nutritional Supplement

Blue-Green Algae (Spirulina)

Possible Deficiencies

As it is not an essential nutrient, blue-green algae is not associated with a deficiency state. However, people who do not consume several servings of vegetables per day could benefit from the carotenoids and other nutrients in blue-green algae. Since it is a complete protein, it can be used in place of some of the protein in a healthy diet. However, very large amounts are required to provide significant quantities of these nutrients from blue-green algae.

Side Effects

Few side effects have been reported from the ingestion of blue-green algae. However, as blue-green algae can accumulate heavy metals from contaminated water, consuming blue-green algae could increase the body’s load of lead, mercury, and cadmium,7 though noncontaminated blue-green algae have been identified.8 Another popular species of blue-green algae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, has been found to produce toxins.9 A few reports also describe allergic reactions to blue-green algae. Animal studies have found spirulina to be safe during pregnancy.10,11,12

There is one case report of a man who developed liver damage while taking spirulina.13 As he was also talking three prescription medications, it is not clear whether the spirulina caused or contributed to the liver injury.

References

1. Dillon JC, Phuc AP, Dubacq JP. Nutritional value of the alga Spirulina. World Rev Nutr Diet 1995;77:32-46.

2. DiNicolantonio J, Bhat A, J O. Effects of spirulina on weight loss and blood lipids: a review. Open Heart 2020;7:e001003.

3. Zeinalian R,Farhangi MA,Shariat A, et al. The effects of Spirulina Platensis on anthropometric indices, appetite, lipid profile and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in obese individuals: a randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2017 Apr;17(1):225

4. Yousefi R,Mottaghi A,Saidpour A. Spirulina platensis effectively ameliorates anthropometric measurements and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese or overweight healthy individuals: A randomized controlled trial. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2018 Oct;40:106-112

5. Hernández-Lepe MA,López-Díaz JA,Juárez-Oropeza MA, et al. Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program on the Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled Trial. Marine drugs. 2018 Oct;16(10)

6. Moradi S,Ziaei R,Foshati S, et al. Effects of Spirulina supplementation on obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2019 Dec;47:102211

7. Johnson PE, Shubert LE. Accumulation of mercury and other elements by spirulina (cyanophyceae). Nutr Rep Int 1986;34:1063-70.

8. Slotton DG, Goldman CR, Franke A. Commercially grown spirulina found to contain low levels of mercury and lead. Nutr Rep Int 1989;40:1165-72.

9. Elder GH, Hunter PR, Codd GA. Hazardous freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Lancet 1993;341:1519-20 [letter].

10. Salazar M, Chamorro GA, Salazar S, et al. Effect of Spirulina maxima consumption on reproduction and peri- and postnatal development in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 1996;34:353–9.

11. Kapoor R, Mehta U. Effect of supplementation of blue green alga (Spirulina) on outcome of pregnancy in rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1993;43:29–35.

12. Chamorro G, Salazar M. Teratogenic study of Spirulina in mice. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1990;40:86-94 [in Spanish].

13. Iwasa M, Yamamoto M, Tanaka Y, et al. Spirulina-associated hepatotoxicity. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:3212-3. [Letter]

Copyright © 2021 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

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The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2021.

Copyright © 2021 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2021.