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Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is a member of the carotenoid family of plant pigments, occurring in nature primarily in ocean plant life. Astaxanthin is also commercially synthesized for use in fish farming.1,2 Like other carotenoids, astaxanthin has strong antoxidant activity, and test tube and animal research has suggested potential anti-inflammatory, immune-regulating, antibacterial, and anticancer properties.1,2

References

1. Higuera-Ciapara I, Félix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea FM. Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:185-96 [review].

2. Guerin M, Huntley ME, Olaizola M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol 2003;21:210-6 [review].

3. Hussein G, Nakagawa T, Goto H, et al. Astaxanthin ameliorates features of metabolic syndrome in SHR/NDmcr-cp. Life Sci 2007; 80:522-9.

4. Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin in cardiovascular health and disease. Molecules 2012 20;17:2030-48 [review].

5. Hussein G, Nakagawa T, Goto H, et al. Astaxanthin ameliorates features of metabolic syndrome in SHR/NDmcr-cp. Life Sci 2007; 80:522-9.

6. Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin in cardiovascular health and disease. Molecules 2012 20;17:2030-48 [review].

7. Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, et al. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:520-3.

8. Choi HD, Youn YK, Shin WG. Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2011;66:363-9.

9. Akyön Y. Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8:438-41.

10. Wang X, Willén R, Wadström T. Astaxanthin-rich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:2452-7.

11. Bennedsen M, Wang X, Willén R, et al. Treatment of H. pylori infected mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation, bacterial load and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes. Immunol Lett 1999;70:185-9.

12. Kupcinskas L, Lafolie P, Lignell A, et al. Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled study. Phytomedicine 2008;15:391-9.

13. Akyön Y. Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8:438-41.

14. Wang X, Willén R, Wadström T. Astaxanthin-rich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:2452-7.

15. Bennedsen M, Wang X, Willén R, et al. Treatment of H. pylori infected mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation, bacterial load and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes. Immunol Lett 1999;70:185-9.

16. Kupcinskas L, Lafolie P, Lignell A, et al. Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled study. Phytomedicine 2008;15:391-9.

17. Aoi W, Naito Y, Sakuma K, et al. Astaxanthin limits exercise-induced skeletal and cardiac muscle damage in mice. Antioxid Redox Signal 2003;5:139-44.

18. Aoi W, Naito Y, Takanami Y, et al. Astaxanthin improves muscle lipid metabolism in exercise via inhibitory effect of oxidative CPT I modification. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 22;366:892-7.

19. Ikeuchi M, Koyama T, Takahashi J, Yazawa K. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on exercise-induced fatigue in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:2106-10.

20. Djordjevic B, Baralic I, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, et al. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2012;52:382-92.

21. Bloomer RJ, Fry A, Schilling B, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance-trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005;15:401-12.

22. Earnest CP, Lupo M, White KM, Church TS. Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Int J Sports Med 2011;32:882-8.

23. Res PT, Cermak NM, Stinkens R, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not augment fat use or improve endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013;45:1158-65.

24. Comhaire FH, Mahmoud A. The role of food supplements in the treatment of the infertile man. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:385-91 [review].

25. Yuan JP, Peng J, Yin K, Wang JH. Potential health-promoting effects of astaxanthin: a high-value carotenoid mostly from microalgae. Mol Nutr Food Res 2011;55:150-65 [review].

26. Tominaga K, Hongo N, Karato M, Yamashita E. Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects. Acta Biochim Pol 2012;59:43-7.

27. Yamashita E. The effect of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condition. Carotenoid Sci 2006;10:91-5.

28. Kidd P. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Altern Med Rev 2011;16:355-64 [review].

29. Satoh A, Tsuji S, Okada Y, et al. Preliminary clinical evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of a new astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2009;44:280-4.

30. Katagiri M, Satoh A, Tsuji S, Shirasawa T. Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2012;51:102-7.

31. Kidd P. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Altern Med Rev 2011;16:355-64 [review].

32. Satoh A, Tsuji S, Okada Y, et al. Preliminary clinical evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of a new astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2009;44:280-4.

33. Katagiri M, Satoh A, Tsuji S, Shirasawa T. Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2012;51:102-7.

34. Higuera-Ciapara I, Félix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea FM. Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:185-96 [review].

35. Guerin M, Huntley ME, Olaizola M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol 2003;21:210-6 [review].

36. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Subpart A, § 73.35. Astaxanthin [cited 2013 Aug 17]. Available from URL: www.ecfr.gov.

37. Reagan-Shaw S, Nihal M, Ahmad N. Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. FASEB J 2008;22:659-61 [review].

38. Stewart JS, Lignell A, Pettersson A, et al. Safety assessment of astaxanthin-rich microalgae biomass: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:3030-6.

39. Kidd P. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Altern Med Rev 2011;16:355-64 [review].

40. Satoh A, Tsuji S, Okada Y, et al. Preliminary clinical evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of a new astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2009;44:280-4.

41. Spiller GA, Dewell A. Safety of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract: a randomized clinical trial. J Med Food 2003;6:51-6.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.

Copyright © 2019 Healthnotes, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.