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Nutritional Supplement

Asian Ginseng

  • Men's Health

    Erectile Dysfunction

    Asian ginseng may improve libido and ability to maintain erection.
    Erectile Dysfunction
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    Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has traditionally been used as a supportive herb for male potency. A double-blind trial found that 1,800 mg per day of Asian ginseng extract for three months helped improve libido and the ability to maintain an erection in men with ED.16 The benefit of Asian ginseng confirmed in another double-blind study, in which 900 mg three times a day was given for eight weeks.17

    Male Infertility

    One preliminary study found that men who took Asian ginseng had an improvement in sperm count and sperm motility.
    Male Infertility
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    Asian ginseng may prove useful for male infertility. One preliminary study found that 4 grams of Asian ginseng per day for three months led to an improvement in sperm count and sperm motility.18

  • Sexual Health

    Erectile Dysfunction

    Asian ginseng may improve libido and ability to maintain erection.
    Erectile Dysfunction
    ×
     

    Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has traditionally been used as a supportive herb for male potency. A double-blind trial found that 1,800 mg per day of Asian ginseng extract for three months helped improve libido and the ability to maintain an erection in men with ED.19 The benefit of Asian ginseng confirmed in another double-blind study, in which 900 mg three times a day was given for eight weeks.20

  • Immune System Support

    Immune Function

    Asian ginseng has a long history of use in traditional herbal medicine for preventing and treating conditions related to the immune system.
    Immune Function
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    Asian ginseng has a long history of use in traditional herbal medicine for preventing and treating conditions related to the immune system. A double-blind study of healthy people found that taking 100 mg of a standardized extract of Asian ginseng twice per day improved immune function.21

    Common Cold and Sore Throat

    Adaptogens such as Asian ginseng are thought to help keep various body systems—including the immune system—functioning optimally.
    Common Cold and Sore Throat
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    Herbal supplements can help strengthen the immune system and fight infections. Adaptogens, which include eleuthero, Asian ginseng, astragalus, and schisandra, are thought to help keep various body systems—including the immune system—functioning optimally. They have not been systematically evaluated as cold remedies. However, one double-blind trial found that people who were given 100 mg of Asian ginseng extract in combination with a flu vaccine experienced a lower frequency of colds and flu compared with people who received only the flu vaccine.22

    Influenza

    Asian ginseng has immune-enhancing properties, which may play a role in preventing infection with the influenza virus.
    Influenza
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    Asian ginseng and eleuthero (Siberian ginseng) have immune-enhancing properties, which may play a role in preventing infection with the influenza virus. However, they have not yet been specifically studied for this purpose. One double-blind trial found that co-administration of 100 mg of Asian ginseng extract with a flu vaccine led to a lower frequency of colds and flu compared to people who just received the flu vaccine alone.23

    Infection

    Asian ginseng supports the immune system and protects against microbes.
    Infection
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    Herbs that support a person’s immune system in the fight against microbes include the following: American ginseng, andrographis, Asian ginseng, astragalus, coriolus, eleuthero, ligustrum, maitake, picrorhiza, reishi, schisandra, and shiitake.

    HIV and AIDS Support

    One study found that steamed then dried Asian ginseng had beneficial effects in people infected with HIV and increased the effectiveness of the anti-HIV drug AZT.
    HIV and AIDS Support
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    Immune-modulating plants that could theoretically be beneficial for people with HIV infection include Asian ginseng, eleuthero, and the medicinal mushrooms shiitake and reishi. One preliminary study found that steamed then dried Asian ginseng (also known as red ginseng) had beneficial effects in people infected with HIV, and increased the effectiveness of the anti-HIV drug, AZT.24 This supports the idea that immuno-modulating herbs could benefit people with HIV infection, though more research is needed.

    HIV and AIDS Support

    The herbal formula sho-saiko-to has been shown to have beneficial immune effects on white blood cells in people infected with HIV.
    HIV and AIDS Support
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    The Chinese herb bupleurum, as part of the herbal formula sho-saiko-to, has been shown to have beneficial immune effects on white blood cells taken from people infected with HIV.25 Sho-saiko-to has also been shown to improve the efficacy of the anti-HIV drug lamivudine in the test tube.26 One preliminary study found that 7 of 13 people with HIV given sho-saiko-to had improvements in immune function.27 Double-blind trials are needed to determine whether bupleurum or sho-saiko-to might benefit people with HIV infection or AIDS. Other herbs in sho-saiko-to have also been shown to have anti-HIV activity in the test tube, most notably Asian scullcap.28 Therefore studies on sho-saiko-to cannot be taken to mean that bupleurum is the only active herb involved. The other ingredients are peony root, pinellia root, cassia bark, ginger root, jujube fruit, Asian ginseng root, Asian scullcap root, and licorice root.

  • Stress and Mood Management

    Stress

    Supplementing with Asian ginseng has been shown to enhance feelings of well-being and improve quality of life in some studies.
    Stress
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    The herbs discussed here are considered members of a controversial category known as adaptogens, which are thought to increase the body's resistance to stress, and to generally enhance physical and mental functioning.29,30 Many animal studies have shown that various herbal adaptogens have protective effects against physically stressful experiences,31,32 but whether these findings are relevant to human stress experiences is debatable.

    Animal studies support the idea that Asian ginseng is an adaptogen.33 Some studies have suggested that Asian ginseng can enhance feelings of well-being in elderly people with age-associated memory impairment,34 nurses working night shifts,35 or people with diabetes.36 In a double-blind trial, people taking a daily combination of a multivitamin-mineral supplement (MVM) with 40 mg of ginseng extract (standardized for 4% ginsenosides) for 12 weeks reported greater improvements in quality of life measured with a questionnaire compared with a group taking only MVM.37 The same MVM-ginseng combination was tested in a double-blind study of night-shift healthcare workers.38 Compared with a placebo group, the group receiving the MVM-ginseng combination improved on one out of four measures of mental performance, one out of three measures of mood (increased calmness, but no change in alertness or contentment), and a measure of reported fatigue. However, in another double-blind study, healthy adults given 200 or 400 mg per day of a standardized extract of Asian ginseng (equivalent to 1,000 or 2,000 mg of ginseng root) showed no significant improvement in any of several measures of psychological well-being after two months.39

  • Blood Sugar and Diabetes Support

    Type 2 Diabetes

    Asian ginseng may help restore healthy insulin sensitivity and improve blood glucose and lipid levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
    Type 2 Diabetes
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    Asian ginseng is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat diabetes. Asian ginseng extracts and constituents known as ginsenosides have demonstrated antidiabetic effects such as lowering glucose levels, improving insulin levels, reducing insulin resistance scores, and improving lipid levels in multiple clinical trials and laboratory studies.40,41,42,43,44 In one placebo-controlled trial, taking 5 grams of Asian ginseng per day for 12 weeks led to better blood glucose response to glucose ingestion in participants with type 2 diabetes.45 A placebo-controlled trial using various doses of a vinegar extract of Asian ginseng noted 1.5 grams per day was associated with greater reduction in HgbA1c and fasting glucose levels than either 2 or 3 grams per day.46 Another trial found, in subjects with well controlled type 2 diabetes, 6 grams per day of crude Asian ginseng rootlets improved the response to a glucose load, lowered fasting insulin levels, and increased insulin sensitivity scores, but did not improve HgbA1c.47

    Type 1 Diabetes

    Asian ginseng is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes.
    Type 1 Diabetes
    ×
    Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat diabetes. It has been shown in test tube and animal studies to enhance the release of insulin from the pancreas and increase the number of insulin receptors.48 Asian ginseng and its active constituents have also been found to improve blood glucose control and reduce complications in animal models of type 1 diabetes.49 Clinical trials in people with type 1 diabetes are needed to confirm these findings.
  • Menopause Support

    Menopause

    One trial found that Asian ginseng helped alleviate psychological symptoms of menopause, such as depression and anxiety.
    Menopause
    ×

    A double-blind trial found that Asian ginseng (200 mg per day of standardized extract) helped alleviate psychological symptoms of menopause, such as depression and anxiety, but did not decrease physical symptoms, such as hot flashes or sexual dysfunction, in postmenopausal women who had not been treated with hormones.50 In another double-blind trial, supplementation with 3 grams per day of red ginseng (heated Asian ginseng) for 12 weeks significantly improved menopausal hot flashes, compared with a placebo.51

  • Women's Health

    Menopause

    One trial found that Asian ginseng helped alleviate psychological symptoms of menopause, such as depression and anxiety.
    Menopause
    ×

    A double-blind trial found that Asian ginseng (200 mg per day of standardized extract) helped alleviate psychological symptoms of menopause, such as depression and anxiety, but did not decrease physical symptoms, such as hot flashes or sexual dysfunction, in postmenopausal women who had not been treated with hormones.52 In another double-blind trial, supplementation with 3 grams per day of red ginseng (heated Asian ginseng) for 12 weeks significantly improved menopausal hot flashes, compared with a placebo.53

  • Energy Support

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Adaptogenic herbs such as Asian ginseng have an immunomodulating effect and help support the normal function of the body’s hormonal stress system.
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
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    Adaptogenic herbs such as Asian ginseng and eleuthero may also be useful for CFS patients—the herbs not only have an immunomodulating effect but also help support the normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hormonal stress system of the body.54 These herbs are useful follow-ups to the six to eight weeks of taking licorice root and may be used for long-term support of adrenal function in people with CFS. However, no controlled research has investigated the effect of adaptogenic herbs on CFS.

  • Healthy Aging/Senior Health

    Alzheimer’s Disease

    A preliminary trial suggests that taking Panax ginseng may significantly improve a measure of cognitive function in the short term, though long-term use has not been established.
    Alzheimer’s Disease
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    In a preliminary trial, supplementation with 4.5 grams per day of Asian (Panax) ginseng for 12 weeks resulted in a statistically significant 15% improvement in a measure of cognitive function. This improvement waned after the treatment was discontinued.55
  • Fitness

    Athletic Performance, Endurance Exercise, and Muscle Strength

    Some early studies suggested there might be benefits of using Asian ginseng to improve athletic performance. One study reported increased pectoral and quadricep muscle strength in non-exercising men and women after supplementing with the herb.
    Athletic Performance, Endurance Exercise, and Muscle Strength
    ×
    Extensive but often poorly designed studies have been conducted on the use of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) to improve athletic performance.56,57 While some early controlled studies suggested there might be benefits, several recent double-blind trials have found no significant effects of Asian ginseng on endurance exercise.58,59,57 In many studies, it is possible that ginseng was used in insufficient amounts or for an inadequate length of time; a more effective regimen for enhancing endurance performance may be 2 grams of powdered root per day or 200 to 400 mg per day of an extract standardized for 4% ginsenosides, taken for eight to twelve weeks.61 Short-term intense exercise has also not been helped by Asian ginseng according to double-blind trials,62,63 but one controlled study reported increased pectoral and quadricep muscle strength in non-exercising men and women after taking 1 gram per day of Asian ginseng for six weeks.64 An extract of a related plant, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), was found ineffective at improving endurance exercise performance in untrained people after one week’s supplementation in a double-blind study.[REF]
What Are Star Ratings?
×
Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

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Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)

Asian ginseng has been a part of Chinese medicine for over 2,000 years. The first reference to the use of Asian ginseng dates to the 1st century A.D. Ginseng is commonly used by elderly people in the Orient to improve mental and physical vitality.

References

1. Shibata S, Tanaka O, Shoji J, Saito H. Chemistry and pharmacology of Panax. In Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, vol 1, Wagner H, Hikino H, Farnsworth NR (eds). London: Academic Press, 1985, 217-84.

2. Tomoda M, Hirabayashi K, Shimizu N, et al. Characterization of two novel polysaccharides having immunological activities from the root of Panax ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull 1993;16:1087-90.

3. See DM, Broumand N, Sahl L, Tilles JG. In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Immunopharmacology 1997;35:229-35.

4. Yun TK, Choi Y. Non-organ specific cancer prevention of ginseng: A prospective study in Korea. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:359-64.

5. Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, et al. The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of human and experimental evidence. Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:565-76 [review].

6. Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1373-5.

7. Teves MA, Wright JE, Welch MJ, et al. Effects of ginseng on repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1983;15:162.

8. Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, Welsch M. Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults' peak aerobic exercise performance. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:462-6.

9. Pieralisi G, Ripari P, Vecchiet L. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract combined with dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate, vitamins, minerals and trace elements on physical performance during exercise. Clin Ther 1991;13:373-82.

10. Le Gal M, Cathebras P, Struby K. Pharmaton capsules in the treatment of functional fatigue: A double-blind study versus placebo evaluated by a new methodology. Phytother Res 1996;10:49-53.

11. Caso Mardsco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begona Infante C. Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:323-9.

12. Brown D. Licorice root - potential early intervention for chronic fatigue syndrome. Quart Rev Natural Med 1996;Summer:95-7.

13. Salvati G, Genovesi G, Marcellini L, et al. Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertility. Panmineva Med 1996;38:249-54.

14. Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH. Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impotence Res 1995;7:181-6.

15. Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol 2002;168:2070-3.

16. Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH. Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impotence Res 1995;7:181-6.

17. Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol 2002;168:2070-3.

18. Salvati G, Genovesi G, Marcellini L, et al. Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertility. Panmineva Med 1996;38:249-54.

19. Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH. Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impotence Res 1995;7:181-6.

20. Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol 2002;168:2070-3.

21. Scaglione F, Ferrara F, Dugnani S, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16:537-42.

22. Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R. Efficacy and safety of the standardized ginseng extract G 115 for potentiating vaccination against common cold and/or influenza syndrome. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:65-72.

23. Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R. Efficacy and safety of the standardized ginseng extract G 115 for potentiating vaccination against common cold and/or influenza syndrome. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:65-72.

24. Cho YK, Kim Y, Choi M, et al. The effect of red ginseng and zidovudine on HIV patients. Int Conf AIDS 1994;10:215 [abstract no. PB0289].

25. Inada Y, Watanabe K, Kamiyama M, et al. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of traditional Kampo medicine (sho-saiko-to: SST) on peripheral mononuclear cells in patients with AIDS. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44:17-9.

26. Piras G, Makino M, Baba M. Sho-saiko-to, a traditional kampo medicine, enhances the anti-HIV-1 activity of lamivudine (3TC) in vitro. Microbiol Immunol 1997;41:835-9.

27. Fujimaki M, Hada M, Ikematsu S, et al. Clinical efficacy of two kinds of kampo medicine on HIV infected patients. Int Conf AIDS 1989;5:400 [abstract no. W.B.P.292].

28. Li BQ, Fu T, Yan YD, et al. Inhibition of HIV infection by baicalin—a flavonoid compound purified from Chinese herbal medicine. Cell Mol Biol Res 1993;39:119-24.

29. Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annu Rev Pharmacol 1969;9:419-30 [review].

30. Panossian A, Wikman G, Wagner H. Plant adaptogens. III. Earlier and more recent aspects and concepts on their mode of action. Phytomedicine 1999;6:287-300 [review].

31. Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res 1999;13:275-91 [review].

32. Wagner H, Nörr H, Winterhoff H. Plant adaptogens. Phytomedicine 1994;1:63-76.

33. Schulz V, Hänsel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:271-3.

34. Neri M, Andermarcher E, Pradelli JM, Salvioli G. Influence of a double blind pharmacological trial on two domains of well-being in subjects with age associated memory impairment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1995;21:241-52.

35. Hallstrom C, Fulder S, Carruthers M. Effect of ginseng on the performance of nurses on night duty. Comp Med East West 1982;6:277-82.

36. Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1373-5.

37. Caso Mardsco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begona Infante C. Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:323-9.

38. Wesnes KA, Luthringer R, Ambrosetti L, et al. The effects of a combination of Panax ginseng, vitamins and minerals on mental performance, mood and physical fatigue in nurses working night shifts: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Curr Top Nutraceut Res 2003;1:169-76.

39. Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:655-60.

40. Gui Q, Xu Z, Xu K, Yang Y. The Efficacy of Ginseng-Related Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95:e2584.

41. Shishtar E, Sievenpiper J, Djedovic V, et al. The effect of ginseng (the genus panax) on glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. PLoS One 2014;9:e107391.

42. Oh M, Park S, Kim S, et al. Postprandial glucose-lowering effects of fermented red ginseng in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:237.

43. Zhou P, Xie W, He S, et al. Ginsenoside Rb1 as an Anti-Diabetic Agent and Its Underlying Mechanism Analysis. Cells 2019;8.

44. Bai L, Gao J, Wei F, et al. Therapeutic Potential of Ginsenosides as an Adjuvant Treatment for Diabetes. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:423.

45. Bang H, Kwak JH, Ahn HY, et al. Korean red ginseng improves glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 2014;17:128–34.

46. Yoon J, Kang S, Vassy J, et al. Efficacy and safety of ginsam, a vinegar extract from Panax ginseng, in type 2 diabetic patients: Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Diabetes Investig 2012;3:309–17.

47. Vuksan V, Sung M, Sievenpiper J, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008;18:46–56.

48. Szczuka D, Nowak A, Zaklos-Szyda M, et al. American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) as a Source of Bioactive Phytochemicals with Pro-Health Properties. Nutrients 2019;11.

49. Bai L, Gao J, Wei F, et al. Therapeutic Potential of Ginsenosides as an Adjuvant Treatment for Diabetes. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:423.

50. Wiklund IK, Mattson LA, Lindgren R, et al. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and psychological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharm Res 1999;19:89-99.

51. Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, et al. Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Menopause 2012;19:461-6.

52. Wiklund IK, Mattson LA, Lindgren R, et al. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and psychological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharm Res 1999;19:89-99.

53. Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, et al. Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Menopause 2012;19:461-6.

54. Brown D. Licorice root - potential early intervention for chronic fatigue syndrome. Quart Rev Natural Med 1996;Summer:95-7.

55. Lee ST, Chu K, Sim JY, et al. Panax ginseng enhances cognitive performance in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2008;22:222-6.

56. Bahrke MS, Morgan WP. Evaluation of the ergogenic properties of ginseng. Sports Med 1994;18:229-48 [review].

57. Bahrke MS, Morgan WR. Evaluation of the ergogenic properties of ginseng: an update. Sports Med 2000;29:113-33 [review].

58. Engels HJ, Wirth JC. No ergogenic effects of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) during graded maximal aerobic exercise. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:1110-5.

59. Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, Welsch M. Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults' peak aerobic exercise performance. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:462-6.

60. Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:624S-36S [review].

61. Engels HJ, Fahlman MM, Wirth JC. Effects of ginseng on secretory IgA, performance, and recovery from interval exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:690-6.

62. Engels HJ, Kolokouri I, Cieslak TJ 2nd, Wirth JC. Effects of ginseng supplementation on supramaximal exercise performance and short-term recovery. J Strength Cond Res 2001;15:290-5.

63. McNaughton L. A comparison of Chinese and Russian ginseng as ergogenic aids to improve various facets of physical fitness. Int Clin Nutr Rev 1989;9:32-5.

64. Brown DJ. Herbal Prescriptions for Better Health. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1996, 129-38.

65. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 1996, 145-50.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learn more about TraceGains, the company.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.

Copyright © 2020 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2020.