En Español
Health Encyclopedia

Health Condition

Weight Loss and Obesity

About This Condition

About two-thirds of the adult U.S. population is overweight.1 Almost one-third not only exceeds ideal weight, but also meets the clinical criteria for obesity. In the 1990s, rates of obesity more than doubled, and are currently rising by over 5% per year.2,3 Excess body weight is implicated as a risk factor for many different disorders, including heart disease, diabetes, several cancers (such as breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and cancers of the uterus, colon, and kidney), prostate enlargement (BPH), female infertility, uterine fibroids, and gallstones, as well as several disorders of pregnancy, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension.4 The location of excess body fat may affect the amount of health risk associated with overweight. Increased abdominal fat, which can be estimated by waist size, may be especially hazardous to long-term health.5,6

For overweight women, weight loss can significantly improve physical health. A four-year study of over 40,000 women found that weight loss in overweight women was associated with improved physical function and vitality as well as decreased bodily pain.7 The risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other diseases increases in overweight men and women in all age groups.8 Losing weight and keeping it off is, unfortunately, very difficult for most people.9,10 However, repeated weight loss followed by weight regain may be unhealthy, as it has been associated with increased heart disease risk factors and bone loss in some studies.11,12 Rather than focusing on weight loss as the most important health outcome of a change in diet or lifestyle, some doctors advocate paying more attention to overall fitness and reduction in known risk factors for heart disease and other health hazards.13

Excess body mass has the one advantage of increasing bone mass—a protection against osteoporosis. Probably because of this, researchers have been able to show that people who successfully lose weight have greater loss of bone compared with those who do not lose weight.14 People who lose weight should, therefore, pay more attention to preventing osteoporosis.

Other Therapies

Other treatment typically includes dietary changes to limit fat and calorie intake, increased exercise, and changes in eating habits or patterns. Severe cases might require surgical options to reduce the size of the stomach or to bypass a portion of the stomach and intestines.

References

1. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults 1999-2000 JAMA 2002;288:1723-7.

2. Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, et al. The continuing epidemic of obesity in the United States. JAMA 2000;284:1650-1 [letter].

3. Lewis CE, Jacobs DR Jr, McCreath H, et al. Weight gain continues in the 1990s: 10-year trends in weight and overweight from the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:1172-81.

4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. NIH Publication No. 98-4083. Washington DC: National Institutes of Health, 1998.

5. Emery EM, Schmid TL, Kahn HS, Filozof PP. A review of the association between abdominal fat distribution, health outcome measures, and modifiable risk factors. Am J Health Promot 1993;7:342-53 [review].

6. Brochu M, Poehlman ET, Ades PA. Obesity, body fat distribution, and coronary artery disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 2000;20:96-108 [review.]

7. Fine JT, Colditz GA, Coakley EG, et al. A prospective study of weight change and health-related quality of life in women. JAMA 1999;282:2136-42.

8. Calle EE, Thun MJ, Petrelli JM, et al. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1097-105.

9. Miller WC. How effective are traditional dietary and exercise interventions for weight loss? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1129-34 [review].

10. Kassirer JP, Angell M. Losing weight—an ill-fated New Year's resolution. N Engl J Med 1998;338:52-4.

11. Muls E, Kempen K, Vansant G, Saris W. Is weight cycling detrimental to health? A review of the literature in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995;19 Suppl 3:S46-S50 [review].

12. Brownell KD, Rodin J. Medical, metabolic, and psychological effects of weight cycling. Arch Intern Med1994;154:1325-30 [review].

13. Miller WC, Jacob AV. The health at any size paradigm for obesity treatment: the scientific evidence. Obes Rev 2001;2:37-45 [review].

14. Salamone LM, Cauley JA, Black DM, et al. Effect of a lifestyle intervention on bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:97-103.

15. Koh EH, Lee WJ, Lee SA, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on body weight in obese subjects. Am J Med 2011;124:85.e1-85.e8.

16. Bobe G,Michels AJ,Zhang WJ, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term (R)-α-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Promotes Weight Loss in Overweight or Obese Adults without Altering Baseline Elevated Plasma Triglyceride Concentrations. The Journal of nutrition. 2020 09;150(9):2336-2345

17. Huerta AE, Navas-Carretero S, Prieto-Hontoria PL, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in overweight and obese women during weight loss. Obesity 2015;23:313–21.

18. Li N,Yan W,Hu X, et al. Effects of oral α-lipoic acid administration on body weight in overweight or obese subjects: a crossover randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical endocrinology. 2017 May;86(5):680-687

19. Kucukgoncu S,Zhou E,Lucas KB, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a supplementation for weight loss: results from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2017 05;18(5):594-601

20. Namazi N,Larijani B,Azadbakht L. Alpha-lipoic acid supplement in obesity treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2018 04;37(2):419-428

21. Barrett M, Udani J. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control. Nutr J 2011;10:24.

22. Tucci SA,Boyland EJ,Halford JC. The role of lipid and carbohydrate digestive enzyme inhibitors in the management of obesity: a review of current and emerging therapeutic agents. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy. 2010 May;3:125-43

23. Wang S,Chen L,Yang H, et al. Regular intake of white kidney beans extract (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induces weight loss compared to placebo in obese human subjects. Food science & nutrition. 2020 Mar;8(3):1315-1324

24. Celleno L,Tolaini MV,D'Amore A, et al. A Dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. International journal of medical sciences. 2007 Jan;4(1):45-52

25. Udani J,Tan O,Molina J. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2018 Apr;7(4)

26. DiNicolantonio J, Bhat A, J O. Effects of spirulina on weight loss and blood lipids: a review. Open Heart 2020;7:e001003.

27. Zeinalian R,Farhangi MA,Shariat A, et al. The effects of Spirulina Platensis on anthropometric indices, appetite, lipid profile and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in obese individuals: a randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2017 Apr;17(1):225

28. Yousefi R,Mottaghi A,Saidpour A. Spirulina platensis effectively ameliorates anthropometric measurements and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese or overweight healthy individuals: A randomized controlled trial. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2018 Oct;40:106-112

29. Hernández-Lepe MA,López-Díaz JA,Juárez-Oropeza MA, et al. Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program on the Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled Trial. Marine drugs. 2018 Oct;16(10)

30. Moradi S,Ziaei R,Foshati S, et al. Effects of Spirulina supplementation on obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2019 Dec;47:102211

31. Trivedi VR, Satia MC,Deschamps A, et al. Single-blind, placebo controlled randomised clinical study of chitosan for body weight reduction. Nutrition journal. 2016 Jan;15:3

32. Huang H, Liao D, Zou Y, et al. The effects of chitosan supplementation on body weight and body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2020 ;60(11):1815-1825

33. Moraru C, Mincea MM, Frandes M, et al. A Meta-Analysis on Randomised Controlled Clinical Trials Evaluating the Effect of the Dietary Supplement Chitosan on Weight Loss, Lipid Parameters and Blood Pressure. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2018 Dec;54(6)

34. Jung EY, Jun SC, Chang UJ, et al. L-ascorbic acid addition to chitosan reduces body weight in overweight women. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition. 2014 ;84(1-2):5-11

35. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation and fat absorption in men and women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2005 Jan;105(1):72-7

36. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation and fecal fat excretion in men. Obes Res 2003;11:683-8.

37. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation does not affect fat absorption in healthy males fed a high-fat diet, a pilot study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:119-22.

38. Guerciolini R, Radu-Radulescu L, Boldrin M, et al. Comparative evaluation of fecal fat excretion induced by orlistat and chitosan. Obes Res 2001;9:364-7.

39. Gao J, Azad MAK, Han H, et al. Impact of Prebiotics on Enteric Diseases and Oxidative Stress. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2020;26(22):2630-2641

40. Maret W. Chromium Supplementation in Human Health, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes. Met Ions Life Sci 2019;19.

41. Tsang C,Taghizadeh M,Aghabagheri E, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of chromium supplementation on anthropometric indices of subjects with overweight or obesity. Clinical obesity. 2019 Aug;9(4):e12313

42. Tian H,Guo X,Wang X, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2013 Nov;11:CD010063

43. Onakpoya I,Posadzki P,Ernst E. Chromium supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Obesity Reviews. 2013 Jun;14(6):496-507

44. Brownley KA, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, et al. A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2013 Jul;75(1):36-42.

45. de Melo Pereira GV, de Carvalho Neto DP, Magalhães Júnior AI, et al. Chemical composition and health properties of coffee and coffee by-products. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 2020;91:65-96

46. Tian T, Freeman S, Corey M, et al. Chemical characterization of potentially prebiotic oligosaccharides in brewed coffee and spent coffee grounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017 Apr;65(13):2784-2792.

47. Mills CE, Tzounis X, Oruna-Concha MJ, et al. In vitro colonic metabolism of coffee and chlorogenic acid results in selective changes in human faecal microbiota growth. The British Journal of Nutrition. 2015 Apr;113(8):1220-7.

48. Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, et al. Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2017 11;359:j5024.

49. Gorji Z, Varkaneh HK, Talaei S, et al. The effect of green-coffee extract supplementation on obesity: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytomedicine 2019 Oct;63:153018.

50. Asbaghi O, Sadeghian M, Rahmani S, et al. The effect of green coffee extract supplementation on anthropometric measures in adults: A comprehensive systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2020 Jun;51:102424.

51. Jovanovski E, Mazhar N, Komishon A, et al. Can dietary viscous fiber affect body weight independently of an energy-restrictive diet? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2020 02;111(2):471-485.

52. Namazi N, Larijani B, Azadbakht L. Are Isolated and Complex Fiber Supplements Good Choices for Weight Management? A Systematic Review. Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2017 Nov;20(11):704–713.

53. Van Hul M, Cani PD. Targeting Carbohydrates and Polyphenols for a Healthy Microbiome and Healthy Weight. Current Nutrition Reports. 2019 12;8(4):307–316.

54. Rothenberg DO, Zhou C, Zhang L. A Review on the Weight-Loss Effects of Oxidized Tea Polyphenols. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2018 May;23(5).

55. Vázquez Cisneros LC, López-Uriarte P, López-Espinoza A, et al. Effects of green tea and its epigallocatechin (EGCG) content on body weight and fat mass in humans: a systematic review Nutricion Hospitalaria. 2017 06;34(3):731–737.

56. Jurgens TM, Whelan AM, Killian L, et al. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012 Dec;12:CD008650.

57. Huang J, Wang Y, Xie Z, et al. The anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014 Oct;68(10):1075–87.

58. Okla M, Kim J, Koehler K, et al. Dietary Factors Promoting Brown and Beige Fat Development and Thermogenesis. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.). 2017 May;8(3):473–483.

59. Zhang JJ, Wu ZB, Cai YJ, et al. L-carnitine ameliorated fasting-induced fatigue, hunger, and metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled study. Nutrition Journal. 2014 Nov;13:110.

60. Zhang T, Zhang L, Ke B, et al. L-carnitine ameliorated weight loss in fasting therapy: A propensity score-matched study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019 Jun;44:162-165.

61. Askarpour M, Hadi A, Miraghajani M, et al. Beneficial effects of l-carnitine supplementation for weight management in overweight and obese adults: An updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacological Research. 2020 01;151:104554.

62. Talenezhad N, Mohammadi M, Ramezani-Jolfaie N, et al. Effects of l-carnitine supplementation on weight loss and body composition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 37 randomized controlled clinical trials with dose-response analysis. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2020 06;37:9–23.

63. Pooyandjoo M, Nouhi M, Shab-Bihar S, et al. The effect of (L-)carnitine on weight loss in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev 2016;17:970–6. doi:10.1111/obr.12436.

64. Samimi M, Jamilian M,Ebrahimi FA, et al. Oral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Endocrinology. 2016 Jun;84(6):851–7.

65. Pi-Sunyer FX. "Obesity." In Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999,1410.

66. Jane M, McKay J, Pal S. Effects of daily consumption of psyllium, oat bran and polyGlycopleX on obesity-related disease risk factors: A critical review. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2019 01;57:84–91.

67. Reimer RA, Wharton S, Green TJ, et al. Effect of a functional fibre supplement on glycemic control when added to a year-long medically supervised weight management program in adults with type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Nutrition. 2020 Jul.

68. Solah VA, Kerr DA, Hunt WJ, et al. Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and  Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary Choice in Overweight Individuals. Nutrients. 2017 02;9:149.

69. Pal S, Ho S, Gahler RJ, et al. Effect on body weight and composition in overweight/obese Australian adults over 12 months consumption of two different types of fibre supplementation in a randomized trial. Nutrition & metabolism. 2016;13:82.

70. Kacinik V, Lyon M, Purnama M, et al. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet. Nutrition & Diabetes. 2011 Dec;1:e22.

71. Wang ZB, Xin SS, Ding LN, et al. The Potential Role of Probiotics in Controlling Overweight/Obesity and Associated Metabolic Parameters in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: eCAM. 2019;2019:3862971.

72. Sivamaruthi BS, Kesika P, Suganthy N, et al. A Review on Role of Microbiome in Obesity and Antiobesity Properties of Probiotic Supplements. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:3291367.

73. Mazloom K, Siddiqi I, Covasa M. Probiotics: How Effective Are They in the Fight against Obesity? Nutrients. 2019 Jan;11(2).

74. Cerdó T, García-Santos JA, G Bermúdez M, et al. The Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Nutrients. 2019 Mar;11(3).

75. Borgeraas H, Johnson LK, Skattebu J, et al. Effects of probiotics on body weight, body mass index, fat mass and fat percentage in subjects with overweight or obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews 2018 02;19(2):219–232.

76. Aoun A,Darwish F, Hamod N. The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Obesity in Adults and the Role of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for Weight Loss. Prev Nutr Food Sci 2020 Jun;25(2):113–123.

77. Bhathena SJ, Velasquez MT. Beneficial role of dietary phytoestrogens in obesity and diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1191-201 [review].

78. Allison DB, Gadbury G, Schwartz LG, et al. A novel soy-based meal replacement formula for weight loss among obese individuals: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:514-22.

79. Bosello O, Cominancini L, Zocca I, et al. Short- and long-term effects of hypocaloric diets containing proteins of different sources on plasma lipids and apoproteins of obese subjects. Ann Nutr Metab 1988; 32:206-14.

80. Yamashita T, Sasahara T, Pomeroy SE, et al. Arterial compliance, blood pressure, plasma leptin, and plasma lipids in women are improved with weight reduction equally with a meat-based diet and a plant-based diet. Metabolism 1998;47:1308-14.

81. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Spiller G, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of vegetable protein in a hypocaloric diet. Atherosclerosis 1989;78:99-107.

82. Hyppönen E, Boucher BJ. Adiposity, vitamin D requirements, and clinical implications for obesity-related metabolic abnormalities. Nutr Rev 2018 09;76(9):678–692.

83. Slusher AL, McAllister MJ, Huang CJ. A therapeutic role for vitamin D on obesity-associated inflammation and weight-loss intervention. Inflamm Res 2015 Aug;64(8):565–75.

84. Lotfi-Dizaji L, Mahboob S, Aliashrafi S, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation along with weight loss diet on meta-inflammation and fat mass in obese subjects with vitamin D deficiency: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2019 01;90(1):94–101.

85. Abboud M, Liu X, Fayet-Moore F, et al. Effects of Vitamin D Status and Supplements on Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in a Clinical Setting: A Retrospective Study. Nutrients 2019 Dec;11(12):3032.

86. Mason C, Xiao L, Imayama I, et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight loss: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2014 May;99(5):1015–25.

87. Devries MC, Phillips SM. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. J Food Sci 2015 Mar;80 Suppl 1:A8–A15.

88. Bendtsen LQ, Lorenzen JK, Bendsen NT, et al. Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials. Adv Nutr 2013 Jul;4(4):418–38.

89. Pal S, Radavelli-Bagatini S. The effects of whey protein on cardiometabolic risk factors. Obes Rev 2013 Apr;14(4):324–43.

90. Jakubowicz D, Wainstein J, Landau Z, et al. High-energy breakfast based on whey protein reduces body weight, postprandial glycemia and HbA1C in Type 2 diabetes. J Nutr Biochem 2017 11;49:1–7.

91. Wirunsawanya K, Upala S, Jaruvongvanich V, et al. Whey Protein Supplementation Improves Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Coll Nutr 2018 01;37(1):60–70.

92. Sedláčková B, Dušátková L, Zamrazilová H, et al. 7-oxygenated derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone and obesity. Prague Med Rep 2012 ;113(2):147–55.

93. Schirmer MA, Phinney SD. Gamma-linolenate reduces weight regain in formerly obese humans. J Nutr 2007;137:1430-35.

94. Schirmer MA, Phinney SD. Gamma-linolenate reduces weight regain in formerly obese humans. J Nutr 2007;137:1430-35.

95. Navarro-Herrera D, Aranaz P, Eder-Azanza L, et al. Borago officinalis seed oil (BSO), a natural source of omega-6 fatty acids, attenuates fat accumulation by activating peroxisomal beta-oxidation both in C. elegans and in diet-induced obese rats. Food Funct 2018 Aug;9(8):4340–51.

96. Kerksick CM, Roberts MD, Campbell BI, et al. Differential Impact of Calcium and Vitamin D on Body Composition Changes in Post-Menopausal Women Following a Restricted Energy Diet and Exercise Program. Nutrients 2020 Mar;12(3).

97. Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Liu PY, et al. Role of Calcium and Low-Fat Dairy Foods in Weight-Loss Outcomes Revisited: Results from the Randomized Trial of Effects on Bone and Body Composition in Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients 2019 May;11(5).

98. Subih HS, Zueter Z, Obeidat BM, et al. A high weekly dose of cholecalciferol and calcium supplement enhances weight loss and improves health biomarkers in obese women.Nutr Res 2018 11;59:53–64.

99. Bendtsen LQ, Lorenzen JK, Bendsen NT, et al. Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials. Adv Nutr 2013 Jul;4(4):418–38.

100. Madsen L, Myrmel LS, Fjære E, et al. Dietary Proteins, Brown Fat, and Adiposity. Front Physiol. 2018 ;9:1792.

101. Madzima TA, Panton LB, Fretti SK, et al. Night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate results in increased morning resting energy expenditure in active college-aged men. Br J Nutr  2014 Jan;111(1):71–7.

102. Madzima TA, Melanson JT, Black JR, et al. Pre-Sleep Consumption of Casein and Whey Protein: Effects on Morning Metabolism and Resistance Exercise Performance in Active Women. Nutrients 2018 Sep;10(9).

103. Kinsey AW, Cappadona SR, Panton LB, et al. The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men. Nutrients 2016 Jul;8(8).

104. Bendtsen LQ, Lorenzen JK, Gomes S, et al. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study. Br J Nutr 2014 Oct;112(8):1412–22.

105. Anderson JW, Fuller J, Patterson K, et al. Soy compared with casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial. Metabolism 2007;56:280–8.

106. Adechian S, Balage M, Remond D, et al. Protein feeding pattern, casein feeding, or milk-soluble protein feeding did not change the evolution of body composition during a short-term weight loss program. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012 Oct;303(8):E973–82.

107. Bosello O, Cominancini L, Zocca I, et al. Short- and long-term effects of hypocaloric diets containing proteins of different sources on plasma lipids and apoproteins of obese subjects. Ann Nutr Metab 1988; 32:206-14.

108. Sanati S, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. A review of the effects of Capsicum annuum L. and its constituent, capsaicin, in metabolic syndrome. Iran J Basic Med Sci  2018 May;21(5):439–448.

109. Rigamonti AE, Casnici C, Marelli O, et al. Acute administration of capsaicin increases resting energy expenditure in young obese subjects without affecting energy intake, appetite, and circulating levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic peptides. Nutr Res 2018 04;52:71–79.

110. Snitker S, Fujishima Y, Shen H, et al. Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications. Am J Clin Nutr 2009 Jan;89(1):45–50.

111. Inoue N, Matsunaga Y, Satoh H, et al. Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007 Feb;71(2):380–9.

112. Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br J Nutr 2003 Sep;90(3):651–59.

113. Sun L, Camps SG, Goh HJ, et al. Capsinoids activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) with increased energy expenditure associated with subthreshold 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in BAT-positive humans confirmed by positron emission tomography scan. Am J Clin Nutr 2018 01;107(1):62–70.

114. Coleus forskohlii. Monograph. Altern Med Rev 2006 Mar;11(1):47–51.

115. Chiadak JD, Arsenijevic T, Verstrepen K, et al. Forskolin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Modulation of MCP-1 and GPR120 in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through an Inhibition of NFκB. Mediators Inflamm 2016;2016:1431789.

116. Badmaev V, Majeed M, Conte A, Parker J. Diterpene Forskolin (Coleus forskohlii, Benth.): A possible new compound for reduction of body weight by increasing lean body mass. NutraCos - Nutraceuticals 2002;1:6–7.

117. Henderson S, Magu B, Rasmussen C, et al. Effects of coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2005 Dec;2:54–62.

118. Loftus HL, Astell KJ, Mathai ML, et al. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2015 Nov;7(11):9508–22.

119. Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1203–11.

120. den Hartigh LJ. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects on Cancer, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis: A Review of Pre-Clinical and Human Trials with Current Perspectives. Nutrients 2019 Feb;11(2):370.

121. Onakpoya IJ, Posadzki PP, Watson LK, et al. The efficacy of long-term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition in overweight and obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Nutr 2012 Mar;51(2):127–34.

122. Larsen TM, Toubro S, Gudmundsen O, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y does not prevent weight or body fat regain. Am J Clin Nutr 2006 Mar;83(3):606–12.

123. Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Jamali H, Mahdavi R, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid improves glycemic response, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Croat Med J 2016 Aug;57(4):331–42.

124. Riserus U, Vessby B, Arnlov J, Basu S. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:279–83.

125. Risérus U, Vessby B, Arner P, et al. Supplementation with trans10cis12-conjugated linoleic acid induces hyperproinsulinaemia in obese men: close association with impaired insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia 2004 Jun;47(6):1016–9.

126. Vihma V, Heinonen S, Naukkarinen J, et al. Increased body fat mass and androgen metabolism - A twin study in healthy young women. Steroids 2018 12;140:24–31.

127. Aoki K, Terauchi Y. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity. Vitam Horm 2018;108:355–65.

128. Gómez-Santos C, Hernández-Morante JJ, Tébar FJ, et al. Differential effect of oral dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate on metabolic syndrome features in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012 Oct;77(4):548–54.

129. Weiss EP, Villareal DT, Fontana L, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement decreases insulin resistance and lowers inflammatory cytokines in aging humans. Aging (Albany NY) 2011 May;3(5):533–42.

130. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004 Nov;292(18):2243–8.

131. Kalupahana NS, Claycombe KJ, Moustaid-Moussa N. (n-3) Fatty acids alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance: mechanistic insights. Adv Nutr 2011 Jul;2(4):304–16.

132. Albracht-Schulte K, Kalupahana NS, Ramalingam L, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in obesity and metabolic syndrome: a mechanistic update. J Nutr Biochem 2018 08;58:1–16.

133. Keshavarz SA, Mostafavi SA, Akhondzadeh S, et al. Omega-3 supplementation effects on body weight and depression among dieter women with co-morbidity of depression and obesity compared with the placebo: A randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2018 06;25:37–43.

134. Zhang YY, Liu W, Zhao TY, et al. Efficacy of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation in Managing Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. J Nutr Health Aging 2017;21(2):187–92.

135. Wan-Loy C, Siew-Moi P. Marine Algae as a Potential Source for Anti-Obesity Agents. Mar Drugs 2016 Dec;14(12):222.

136. Abidov M, Ramazanov Z, Seifulla R, et al. The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat. Diabetes Obes Metab 2010 Jan;12(1):72–81.

137. Kim KM, Kim SM, Cho DY, et al. The Effect of Xanthigen on the Expression of Brown Adipose Tissue Assessed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET. Yonsei Med J 2016 Jul;57(4):1038–41.

138. Lowenstein JM. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on fatty acid synthesis by rat liver in vivo. J Biol Chem 1971;246:629-32.

139. Triscari J, Sullivan AC. Comparative effects of (-)-hydroxycitrate and (+)-allo-hydroxycitrate on acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in vivo. Lipids 1977;12:357-63.

140. Cheema-Dhadli S, Harlperin ML, Leznoff CC. Inhibition of enzymes which interact with citrate by (-)hydroxycitrate and 1,2,3,-tricarboxybenzene. Eur J Biochem 1973;38:98-102.

141. Sullivan AC, Hamilton JG, Miller ON, et al. Inhibition of lipogenesis in rat liver by (-)-hydroxycitrate. Arch Biochem Biophys 1972;150:183-90.

142. Greenwood MRC, Cleary MP, Gruen R, et al. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on development of obesity in the Zucker obese rat. Am J Physiol 1981;240:E72-8.

143. Sullivan AC, Triscari J. Metabolic regulation as a control for lipid disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30:767-76.

144. Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, et al. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat: I. Lipogenesis. Lipids 1974;9:121-8.

145. Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, et al. Effect of(-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat: II. Appetite. Lipids1974;9:129-34.

146. Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitricacid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA1998;280:1596-600.

147. Martinet A, Hostettmann K, Schultz Y. Thermogenic effects of commercially available plant preparations aimed at treating human obesity. Phytomedicine 1999;6:231-8.

148. Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav 2000;71:87-94.

149. Devaraj R, Reddy C, Xu B. Health-promoting effects of konjac glucomannan and its practical applications: A critical review. Int J Biol Macromol 2019;126:273–81.

150. Keithley J, Swanson B. Glucomannan and obesity: a critical review. Altern Ther Health Med 2005;11(6):30–4.

151. Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes 1984;8:289-93.

152. Keithley JK, Swanson B, Mikolaitis SL, et al. Safety and efficacy of glucomannan for weight loss in overweight and moderately obese adults. J Obes 2013;2013:610908.

153. Onakpoya I, Posadzki P, Ernst E. The efficacy of glucomannan supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Nutr 2014;33(1):70–8.

154. Galligan JJ. Beneficial actions of microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018 02;30(2).

155. Namkung J, Kim H, Park S. Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis. Mol Cells 2015 Dec;38(12):1023–8.

156. Strasser B, Berger K, Fuchs D. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet on tryptophan metabolism and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight adults. Eur J Nutr 2015 Feb;54(1):101–7.

157. Hrboticky N, Leiter L, Anderson G. Effects of L-tryptophan on short term food intake in lean men. Nutr Res 1985;5:595–607.

158. Cavaliere H, Medeiros-Neto G. The anorectic effect of increasing doses of L-tryptophan in obese patients. Eat Weight Disord 1997;2:211-5.

159. Strain GW, Strain JJ, Zumoff B. L-tryptophan does not increase weight loss in carbohydrate-craving obese subjects. Int J Obes 1985;9:375-80.

160. Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE. Body composition, energy utilization, and nitrogen metabolism with a 4.25-MJ/d low-energy diet supplemented with pyruvate. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:630-5.

161. Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition 1999;15:337-40.

162. Onakpoya I, Hunt K, Wider B, et al. Pyruvate supplementation for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2014;54(1):17–23.

163. Kucio C, Jonderko K, Piskorska D. Does yohimbine act as a slimming drug? Isr J Med Sci 1991;27:550–6.

164. Sax L. Yohimbine does not affect fat distribution in men. Int J Obes 1991;15:561-5.

165. Swann AC, Lijffijt M, Lane SD, et al. Norepinephrine and impulsivity: effects of acute yohimbine. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2013 Sep;229(1):83–94.

166. Wang X, Li D, Liu F, et al. Dietary citrus and/or its extracts intake contributed to weight control: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 randomized clinical trials. Phytother Res 2020 Aug;34(8):2006–2022.

167. Stohs SJ. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p-Synephrine. Phytother Res2017 Oct;31(10):1463–1474.

168. Gutiérrez-Hellín J, Del Coso J. Dose-Response Effects of p-Synephrine on Fat Oxidation Rate During Exercise of Increasing Intensity. Phytother Res 2018 Feb;32(2):370–4.

169. Gougeon R, Harrigan K, Tremblay JF, et al. Increase in the thermic effect of food in women by adrenergic amines extracted from citrus aurantium. Obes Res 2005 Jul;13(7):1187–94.

170. Arent SM, Walker AJ, Pellegrino JK, et al. The Combined Effects of Exercise, Diet, and a Multi-Ingredient Dietary Supplement on Body Composition and Adipokine Changes in Overweight Adults. J Am Coll Nutr 2018 02;37(2):111–120.

171. Colker CM, Kalman DS, Torina GC, et al. Effects of Citrus aurantium extract, caffeine, and St. John's wort on body fat, lipid levels, and mood states in overweight adults. Curr Ther Res 1999;60:145-53.

172. Bent S, Padula A, Neuhaus J. Safety and efficacy of citrus aurantium for weight loss. Am J Cardiol 2004 Nov;94(10):1359–61.

173. Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ. Blood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange. Ann Pharmacother 2006 Jan;40(1):53–7.

174. Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med 2005 Sep;118(9):998–1003.

175. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci 2012 ;9(7):527–38.

176. Butt MS, Shahzadi N, Sharif MK, et al. Guar gum: a miracle therapy for hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and obesity. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(4):389–96.

177. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Guar gum for body weight reduction: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2001 Jun;110(9):724–30.

178. Bortolin RC, Vargas AR, de Miranda Ramos V, et al. Guarana supplementation attenuated obesity, insulin resistance, and adipokines dysregulation induced by a standardized human Western diet via brown adipose tissue activation. Phytother Res 2019 May;33(5):1394–403.

179. Lima NDS, Teixeira L, Gambero A, et al. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet. Nutrients 2018 Jan;10(2):165.

180. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001 Mar;25(3):316–24.

181. Ahmad MA, Mujeeb M, Akhtar M, et al. Guggulipid: A Promising Multi-Purpose Herbal Medicinal Agent. Drug Res (Stuttg) 2020 Apr;70(4):123–30.

182. Miller CN, Samuels JS, Azhar Y, et al. Guggulsterone Activates Adipocyte Beiging through Direct Effects on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Indirect Effects Mediated through RAW264.7 Macrophages. Medicines (Basel) 2019 Jan;6(1):22.

183. Ulbricht C, Basch E, Szapary P, et al. Guggul for hyperlipidemia: a review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Complement Ther Med 2005;Dec;13(4):279–90.

184. Patti AM, Al-Rasadi K, Katsiki N, et al. Effect of a Natural Supplement Containing Curcuma Longa, Guggul, and Chlorogenic Acid in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome. Angiology 2015;Oct;66(9):856–61.

185. Lonnie M, Laurie I, Myers M, et al. Exploring Health-Promoting Attributes of Plant Proteins as a Functional Ingredient for the Food Sector: A Systematic Review of Human Interventional Studies. Nutrients 2020 Jul;12(8):E2291.

186. Farinon B, Molinari R, Costantini L, et al. The seed of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.): Nutritional Quality and Potential Functionality for Human Health and Nutrition. Nutrients 2020 Jun;12(7):E1935.

187. Blom WA, Abrahamse SL, Bradford R, et al. Effects of 15-d repeated consumption of Hoodia gordonii purified extract on safety, ad libitum energy intake, and body weight in healthy, overweight women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:1171-81.

188. Landor M, Benami A, Segev N, et al. Efficacy and acceptance of a commercial Hoodia parviflora product for support of appetite and weight control in a consumer trial. J Med Food 2015 Feb;18(2):250–8.

189. Lonnie M, Laurie I, Myers M, et al. Exploring Health-Promoting Attributes of Plant Proteins as a Functional Ingredient for the Food Sector: A Systematic Review of Human Interventional Studies. Nutrients 2020 Jul;12(8):E2291.

190. Hawley AL, Gbur E, Tacinelli AM, et al. The Short-Term Effect of Whey Compared with Pea Protein on Appetite, Food Intake, and Energy Expenditure in Young and Older Men. Curr Dev Nutr 2020 Feb;4(2):nzaa009.

191. Dougkas A, Östman E. Comparable effects of breakfast meals varying in protein source on appetite and subsequent energy intake in healthy males. Eur J Nutr 2018 Apr;57(3):1097–1108.

192. Nielsen LV, Kristensen MD, Klingenberg L, et al. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake-A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study. Nutrients 2018 Jan;10(1):96.

193. Diepvens K, Haberer D, Westerterp-Plantenga M. Different proteins and biopeptides differently affect satiety and anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones in healthy humans. Int J Obes 2008;32:510-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803758. Epub 2007 Nov 27.

194. Talbott SM, Talbott JA, Pugh M. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013 Aug;10(1):37.

195. Garrison R, Chambliss WG. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on weight management: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Ther Health Med 2006;12(1):50–4.

196. Lonnie M, Laurie I, Myers M, et al. Exploring Health-Promoting Attributes of Plant Proteins as a Functional Ingredient for the Food Sector: A Systematic Review of Human Interventional Studies. Nutrients 2020 Jul;12(8):E2291.

197. Yang L, Chen JH, Lv J, et al. Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism. Lipids Health Dis 2012 Feb;11:24.

198. Hong L, Yi W, Liangliang C, et al. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities of sesamin from sesame meal and its ability to ameliorate insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice. J Sci Food Agric 2013 Jun;93(8):1833–8.

199. Takada S, Kinugawa S, Matsushima S, et al. Sesamin prevents decline in exercise capacity and impairment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes. Exp Physiol 2015 Nov;100(11):1319–30.

200. Imai A, Oda Y, Ito N, et al. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin and Sesamin on Daily Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study. Nutrients 2018 Feb;10(3):281.

201. Takemoto D, Yasutake Y, Tomimori N, et al. Sesame Lignans and Vitamin E Supplementation Improve Subjective Statuses and Anti-Oxidative Capacity in Healthy Humans With Feelings of Daily Fatigue. Glob J Health Sci 2015 Mar;7(6):1–10.

202. Helli B, Mowla K, Mohammadshahi M, et al. Effect of Sesamin Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Am Coll Nutr 2016;35(4):300–7.

203. Burton-Freeman B. Dietary fiber and energy regulation. J Nutr 2000;130(2S Suppl):272S-275S [review].

204. Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Soluble fiber and energy regulation. Current knowledge and future directions. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997;427:89-97 [review].

205. Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 2001;59:129-39 [review].

206. Ball SD, Keller KR, Moyer-Mileur LJ, et al. Prolongation of satiety after low versus moderately high glycemic index meals in obese adolescents. Pediatrics 2003;111:488-94.

207. Dumesnil JG, Turgeon J, Tremblay A, et al. Effect of a low-glycaemic index-low-fat-high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men. Br J Nutr 2001;86:557-68.

208. Roberts SB. High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity: is there a connection? Nutr Rev 2000;58:163-9 [review].

209. Raben A. Should obese patients be counselled to follow a low glycaemic diet? No. Obesity Rev 2002;3:245-56 [review].

210. Slabber M, Barnard HC, Kuyl JM, et al. Effects of a low-insulin-response, energy-restricted diet on weight loss and plasma insulin concentrations in hyperinsulinemic obese females. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:48-53.

211. Spieth LE, Harnish JD, Lenders CM, et al. A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154:947-51.

212. Armstrong J, Reilly JJ, Child Health Information Team. Breastfeeding and lowering the risk of childhood obesity. Lancet 2002;359:2003-4.

213. Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, et al. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med 2002;113:30-6.

214. Bravata DM, Sanders L, Huang J, et al. Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review. JAMA 2003;289:1837-50 [review].

215. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2082-90.

216. Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2074-81.

217. Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D'Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:1617-23.

218. Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr 2003;142:253-8.

219. Fleming RM. The effect of high-, moderate-, and low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Prev Cardiol 2002;5:110-8.

220. Fleming RM. The effect of high-protein diets on coronary blood flow. Angiology 2000;51:817-26.

221. Eisenstein J, Roberts SB, Dallal G, Saltzman E. High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data. Nutr Rev 2002;60:189-200 [review].

222. Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, et al. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr 2003;133:411-7.

223. Skov AR, Toubro S, Ronn B, et al. Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:528-36.

224. Miller WC. How effective are traditional dietary and exercise interventions for weight loss? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1129-34 [review].

225. Kassirer JP, Angell M. Losing weight—an ill-fated New Year's resolution. N Engl J Med 1998;338:52-4.

226. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. NIH Publication No. 98-4083. Washington DC: National Institutes of Health, 1998.

227. Astrup A, Grunwald GK, Melanson EL, et al. The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:1545-52 [review].

228. Pirozzo S, Summerbell C, Cameron C, Glasziou P. Advice on low-fat diets for obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(2):CD003640 [review].

229. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486-97.

230. Potter J, ed. World Cancer Research Fund in association with American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research; 1997.

231. Andersson I, Lennernas M, Rossner S. Meal pattern and risk factor evaluation in one-year completers of a weight reduction program for obese men—the study. J Intern Med 2000;247:30-8.

232. Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, et al. Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low-energy, low-fat diet. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:408-13.

233. Wyatt HR, Grunwald GK, Mosca CL, et al. Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obes Res 2002;10:78-82.

234. Muls E, Kempen K, Vansant G, Saris W. Is weight cycling detrimental to health? A review of the literature in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995;19 Suppl 3:S46-S50 [review].

235. Randolph TG. Masked food allergy as a factor in the development and persistence of obesity. J Lab Clin Med 1947;32:1547.

236. Wadden TA, Berkowitz RI, Sarwer DB, et al. Benefits of lifestyle modification in the pharmacologic treatment of obesity. A randomized trial. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:218-27.

237. Votruba SB, Horvitz MA, Schoeller DA. The role of exercise in the treatment of obesity. Nutrition 2000;16:179-88.

238. Miller WC, Koceja DM, Hamilton EJ. A meta-analysis of the past 25 years of weight-loss research using diet, exercise or diet plus exercise intervention. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21:941-7.

239. Pritchard JE, Nowson CA, Wark JD. A worksite program for overweight middle-aged men achieves lesser weight loss with exercise than with dietary change. J Am Diet Assoc 1997 Jan;97:37-42.

240. Pavlou KN, Krey S, Steffee WP. Exercise as an adjunct to weight loss and maintenance in moderately obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49(5 Suppl):1115-23.

241. Wing RR, Hill JO. Successful weight-loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr 2001;21:323-41.

242. Racette SB, Schoeller DA, Kushner RF, Neil KM. Exercise enhances dietary compliance during moderate energy restriction in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:345-9.

243. Cummings S, Parham ES, Strain GW; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc 2002 Aug;102:114–55.

244. Jakicic JM, Clark K, Coleman E, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:2145-56 [review].

245. Riebe D, Greene GW, Ruggiero L, et al. Evaluation of a healthy-lifestyle approach to weight management. Prev Med 2003;36:45-54.

246. National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Dieting and the Development of Eating Disorders in Overweight and Obese Adults. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2581-9.

Copyright © 2021 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learn more about TraceGains, the company.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2021.

Copyright © 2021 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2021.