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Health Condition

Diarrhea

  • Multivitamin

    Diarrhea-related malabsorption can lead to deficiencies of many vitamins and minerals. For this reason, it makes sense to take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

    Dose:

    Take as directed on label
    Multivitamin
    ×
     

    The malabsorption problems that develop during diarrhea can lead to deficiencies of many vitamins and minerals.1 For this reason, it makes sense for people with diarrhea to take a multivitamin-mineral supplement. Two of the nutrients that may not be absorbed efficiently as a result of diarrhea are zinc and vitamin A, both needed to fight infections. In third world countries, supplementation with zinc and vitamin A has led to a reduction in, or prevention of, infectious diarrhea in children.2 There is evidence that even children who are not zinc-deficient could benefit from zinc supplementation during an episode of infectious diarrhea, if the diarrhea is being caused by certain specific organisms, such as the organism that causes cholera or some strains of E. coli.3

  • Bovine Colostrum

    Colostrum appears to be useful in treating certain types of infectious diarrhea. In one study, it significantly reduced diarrhea and the amount of oral rehydration required.

    Dose:

    10 to 20 grams daily
    Bovine Colostrum
    ×

    Colostrum might be useful for certain types of infectious diarrhea. In a double-blind trial, children with diarrhea caused by a rotavirus were treated with immunoglobulins extracted from colostrum derived from cows immunized with rotavirus. Compared with the placebo, colostrum extract significantly reduced the amount of diarrhea and the amount of oral rehydration solution required. The rotavirus was eliminated from the stool significantly more rapidly in the colostrum group than in the placebo group (1.5 days, vs. 2.9 days).4

    In addition to a positive effect against acute rotavirus diarrhea,5 there is also evidence that specific forms of colostrum (derived from specially immunized cows or those with confirmed presence of specific antibodies) are effective against diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum,Helicobacter pylori,Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile.6,7,8,9,10 However, it is not known whether commercially-available colostrum provides significant amounts of the specific immunoglobulins that are active against these organisms. Furthermore, unless the immunoglobulins are present in high enough concentrations, the preparation is not likely to be effective.11

  • Carob

    Useful for treating diarrhea in adults, children, and infants, carob is rich in tannins that have an astringent or binding effect on the mucous membranes of the intestinal tract.

    Dose:

    15 grams daily
    Carob
    ×
     

    Carob is rich in tannins that have an astringent or binding effect on the mucous membranes of the intestinal tract. A double-blind trial has suggested it may be particularly useful for young children and infants with diarrhea.12 Some healthcare professionals recommend 15 grams of carob powder is mixed with applesauce (for flavor) when given to children. Carob can also be used for treating adult diarrhea.

  • Fiber

    While fiber from dietary or herbal sources is often useful for constipation, it may also play a role in alleviating diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Adults: 20 grams daily soluable fiber; for young children: 6.5 grams daily soy fiber
    Fiber
    ×

    While fiber from dietary or herbal sources is often useful for constipation, it may also play a role in alleviating diarrhea.13,14

  • Glucosamine

    Some autistic children suffer from chronic diarrhea. In one study, supplementing with glucosamine eliminated the diarrhea in five of six children with autism, possibly by blocking the effect of certain dietary components on the intestinal tract.

    Dose:

    250 mg with morning and evening meals
    Glucosamine
    ×
     

    Some autistic children suffer from chronic diarrhea. In a study of children with autistic spectrum disorders and persistent diarrhea for many years, supplementing with 500 mg of glucosamine per day (spread over the morning and evening meal) for 30 days eliminated the diarrhea in five of six cases.15 The authors hypothesized that glucosamine worked by blocking the effect of certain dietary components on the intestinal tract.

  • Glutamine

    Glutamine appears to be beneficial for diarrhea by improving the health of the intestinal lining, rather than by affecting the immune system.

    Dose:

    136 mg per pound of body weight
    Glutamine
    ×
     

    In a double-blind study of children (ages six months to two years) with acute diarrhea, supplementing with glutamine significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea by 26%.16 Children were given 136 mg of glutamine per pound of body weight per day for seven days. Glutamine appeared to work by improving the health of the intestinal lining, rather than through any effect on the immune system.

  • Psyllium

    Psyllium seed (an excellent source of fiber) makes stool more solid and can help resolve diarrhea symptoms.

    Dose:

    9 to 30 grams daily
    Psyllium
    ×
     

    While fiber from dietary or herbal sources is often useful for constipation, it may also play a role in alleviating diarrhea. For example, 9–30 grams per day of psyllium seed (an excellent source of fiber) makes stool more solid and can help resolve symptoms of non-infectious diarrhea.17 Alginic acid, one of the major constituents in bladderwrack(Fucus vesiculosus), is a type of dietary fiber and as a result may potentially help relieve diarrhea. However, human studies have not been done on how effective bladderwrack is for this condition.

  • Sangre de Drago

    An extract from stem bark latex of Sangre de drago, has been shown to be effective in treating traveler’s diarrhea, non-specific diarrhea, and diarrhea associated with HIV and AIDS.

    Dose:

    Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
    Sangre de Drago
    ×
     

    An extract from stem bark latex of Sangre de drago (Croton lechleri), an herb from the Amazon basin of Peru, has demonstrated significant anti-diarrheal activity in preliminary18,19 and double-blind trials. Double-blind research has demonstrated the extract’s effectiveness for traveler’s diarrhea,20 non-specific diarrhea,21 and diarrhea associated with HIV infection and AIDS.22,23 For traveler’s diarrhea and nonspecific diarrhea, amounts ranging from 125 mg to 500 mg taken four times daily for two days have proven effective. However, in one trial, only the 125 mg four times daily amount (but not higher amounts) was effective for acute nonspecific diarrhea.21 The reasons for the failure of higher amounts in this study is not known. Very high amounts of these extracts (350–700 mg four times daily for seven or more days) were used in the trials involving people with HIV and AIDS. Such levels of supplementation should always be supervised by a doctor. Most of this research on Sangre de Drago is unpublished, and much of it is derived from manufacturers of the formula. Further double-blind trials, published in medical journals, are needed to confirm the efficacy reported in these studies.

  • Barberry

    Berberine, a constituent of barbarry, has been shown to improve infectious diarrhea in some double-blind trials.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Barberry
    ×
     

    Due to of its supposed antimicrobial activity, goldenseal has a long history of use for infectious diarrhea. Its major alkaloid, berberine (also found in barberry and Oregon grape), has been shown to improve infectious diarrhea in some double-blind trials.24 Negative studies have generally focused on people with cholera, while positive studies investigated viral diarrhea or diarrhea due to strains of E. coli. These studies generally used 400–500 mg berberine one to three times per day. Because of the low amount of berberine in most goldenseal products, it is unclear how effective the whole root or root extracts would be in treating diarrhea.

  • Bilberry

    Bilberry has been used traditionally in Germany for adults and children with diarrhea. Only dried berries or juice should be used—fresh berries may worsen diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Bilberry
    ×
     

    Astringent herbs traditionally used for diarrhea include blackberry leaves, blackberry root bark, blueberry leaves, and red raspberry leaves.25 Raspberry leaves are high in tannins and, like blackberry, may relieve acute diarrhea. A close cousin of the blueberry, bilberry, has been used traditionally in Germany for adults and children with diarrhea.26 Only dried berries or juice should be used—fresh berries may worsen diarrhea.

    Cranesbill has been used by several of the indigenous tribes of North America to treat diarrhea. The tannins in cranesbill likely account for the anti-diarrheal activity27—although there has been little scientific research to clarify cranesbill’s constituents and actions.

  • Blackberry

    Blackberry is an astringent herb traditionally used to treat diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Blackberry
    ×
     

    Astringent herbs traditionally used for diarrhea include blackberry leaves, blackberry root bark, blueberry leaves, and red raspberry leaves.28 Raspberry leaves are high in tannins and, like blackberry, may relieve acute diarrhea. A close cousin of the blueberry, bilberry, has been used traditionally in Germany for adults and children with diarrhea.29 Only dried berries or juice should be used—fresh berries may worsen diarrhea.

    Cranesbill has been used by several of the indigenous tribes of North America to treat diarrhea. The tannins in cranesbill likely account for the anti-diarrheal activity30—although there has been little scientific research to clarify cranesbill’s constituents and actions.

  • Bladderwrack

    Alginic acid, a constituent in bladderwrack, is a type of dietary fiber and as a result may help relieve diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Bladderwrack
    ×
     

    While fiber from dietary or herbal sources is often useful for constipation, it may also play a role in alleviating diarrhea. For example, 9–30 grams per day of psyllium seed (an excellent source of fiber) makes stool more solid and can help resolve symptoms of non-infectious diarrhea.31 Alginic acid, one of the major constituents in bladderwrack(Fucus vesiculosus), is a type of dietary fiber and as a result may potentially help relieve diarrhea. However, human studies have not been done on how effective bladderwrack is for this condition.

  • Blueberry

    Blueberry is an astringent herb traditionally used to treat diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Blueberry
    ×
     

    Astringent herbs traditionally used for diarrhea include blackberry leaves, blackberry root bark, blueberry leaves, and red raspberry leaves.32 Raspberry leaves are high in tannins and, like blackberry, may relieve acute diarrhea. A close cousin of the blueberry, bilberry, has been used traditionally in Germany for adults and children with diarrhea.33 Only dried berries or juice should be used—fresh berries may worsen diarrhea.

    Cranesbill has been used by several of the indigenous tribes of North America to treat diarrhea. The tannins in cranesbill likely account for the anti-diarrheal activity34—although there has been little scientific research to clarify cranesbill’s constituents and actions.

  • Chamomile

    Typically taken as a tea, chamomile may reduce intestinal cramping and ease the irritation and inflammation associated with diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Chamomile
    ×
     

    Chamomile may reduce intestinal cramping and ease the irritation and inflammation associated with diarrhea, according to test tube studies.35 Chamomile is typically taken as a tea. Many doctors recommend dissolving 2–3 grams of powdered chamomile or adding 3–5 ml of a chamomile liquid extract to hot water and drinking it three or more times per day, between meals. Two to three teaspoons (10–15 grams) of the dried flowers can be steeped in a cup of hot water, covered, for ten to fifteen minutes as well.

  • Cranesbill

    Cranesbill has been used by several North American indigenous tribes to treat diarrhea. The tannins in cranesbill likely account for the anti-diarrheal activity.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Cranesbill
    ×
     

    Cranesbill has been used by several of the indigenous tribes of North America to treat diarrhea. The tannins in cranesbill likely account for the anti-diarrheal activity36—although there has been little scientific research to clarify cranesbill’s constituents and actions.

  • Folic Acid

    Folic acid can help repair intestinal lining damage caused by acute diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Folic Acid
    ×
     

    Acute diarrhea can damage the lining of the intestine. Folic acid can help repair this damage. In one preliminary trial, supplementing with very large amounts of folic acid (5 mg three times per day for several days) shortened the duration of acute infectious diarrhea by 42%.37 However, a double-blind trial failed to show any positive effect with the same level of folic acid.38 Therefore, evidence that high levels of folic acid supplementation will help people with infectious diarrhea remains weak.

  • Goldenseal

    Due to of its supposed antimicrobial activity, goldenseal has a long history of use for infectious diarrhea. Its major alkaloid, berberine, has been shown to improve infectious diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Goldenseal
    ×
     

    Due to of its supposed antimicrobial activity, goldenseal has a long history of use for infectious diarrhea. Its major alkaloid, berberine (also found in barberry and Oregon grape), has been shown to improve infectious diarrhea in some double-blind trials.39 Negative studies have generally focused on people with cholera, while positive studies investigated viral diarrhea or diarrhea due to strains of E. coli. These studies generally used 400–500 mg berberine one to three times per day. Because of the low amount of berberine in most goldenseal products, it is unclear how effective the whole root or root extracts would be in treating diarrhea.

  • Marshmallow

    Herbs high in mucilage, such as marshmallow, may help reduce the irritation to the walls of the intestinal tract that can occur with diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Marshmallow
    ×

    Herbs high in mucilage, such as marshmallow or slippery elm, may help reduce the irritation to the walls of the intestinal tract that can occur with diarrhea. A usual amount taken is 1,000 mg of marshmallow extract, capsules, or tablets three times per day. Marshmallow may also be taken as a tincture in the amount of 5–15 ml three times daily.40

  • Oak

    A tannin in oak has been shown to inhibit intestinal secretion, which may help resolve diarrhea. In Germany oak is recommended to treat mild, acute diarrhea in children.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Oak
    ×
     

    In laboratory experiments, a tannin in oak, known as ellagitannin, inhibited intestinal secretion,41 which may help resolve diarrhea. Oak is well regarded in Germany, where it is recommended (along with plenty of electrolyte-containing fluids) to treat mild, acute diarrhea in children.42

  • Oregon Grape

    Berberine, a constituent of Oregon grape, has been shown to improve infectious diarrhea in some trials.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Oregon Grape
    ×
     

    Due to of its supposed antimicrobial activity, goldenseal has a long history of use for infectious diarrhea. Its major alkaloid, berberine (also found in barberry and Oregon grape), has been shown to improve infectious diarrhea in some double-blind trials.43 Negative studies have generally focused on people with cholera, while positive studies investigated viral diarrhea or diarrhea due to strains of E. coli. These studies generally used 400–500 mg berberine one to three times per day. Because of the low amount of berberine in most goldenseal products, it is unclear how effective the whole root or root extracts would be in treating diarrhea.

  • Periwinkle

    European herbalists have used periwinkle for conditions with a watery discharge, such as diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Periwinkle
    ×
    European herbalists have used periwinkle for headaches, vertigo, and poor memory since medieval times.44 It was also considered a helpful remedy for conditions with a watery or bloody discharge such as diarrhea, bleeding gums, or menorrhagia.45
  • Red Raspberry

    Red raspberry is an astringent herb traditionally used for diarrhea. Raspberry leaves are high in tannins and may relieve acute diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Red Raspberry
    ×
     

    Astringent herbs traditionally used for diarrhea include blackberry leaves, blackberry root bark, blueberry leaves, and red raspberry leaves.46 Raspberry leaves are high in tannins and, like blackberry, may relieve acute diarrhea. A close cousin of the blueberry, bilberry, has been used traditionally in Germany for adults and children with diarrhea.47 Only dried berries or juice should be used—fresh berries may worsen diarrhea.

    Cranesbill has been used by several of the indigenous tribes of North America to treat diarrhea. The tannins in cranesbill likely account for the anti-diarrheal activity48—although there has been little scientific research to clarify cranesbill’s constituents and actions.

  • Slippery Elm

    Herbs high in mucilage such as slippery elm may help reduce the irritation to the walls of the intestinal tract that can occur with diarrhea.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Slippery Elm
    ×
    Herbs high in mucilage, such as marshmallow or slippery elm, may help reduce the irritation to the walls of the intestinal tract that can occur with diarrhea. A usual amount taken is 1,000 mg of marshmallow extract, capsules, or tablets three times per day. Marshmallow may also be taken as a tincture in the amount of 5–15 ml three times daily.
  • Sweet Annie

    Sweet annie has been used traditionally to treat infectious diarrhea and malaria.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Sweet Annie
    ×
     

    Sweet annie has been used traditionally to treat infectious diarrhea and malaria. However, more modern studies have used the isolated constituent artemisinin and it is unclear how effective the herb is in managing diarrhea.

  • Tylophora

    Tylophora has been used traditionally in the Ayurvedic system for diarrhea due to its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Tylophora
    ×
     

    Tylophora has been used traditionally in the Ayurvedic system for diarrhea probably due to its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions, although human studies have not confirmed this use.

  • Vitamin A

    Only in cases of malabsorption should vitamin A be used to treat diarrhea, as it has been shown to have no effect or to increase risk of diarrhea in well-nourished children.

    Dose:

    Refer to label instructions
    Vitamin A
    ×
     

    It is known vitamin A supplements support immune function and prevent infections. This is true, however, only under some circumstances. Vitamin A supplementation can also increase the risk of infections, according to the findings of a double-blind trial.49 In a study of African children between six months and five years old, a 44% reduction in the risk of severe diarrhea was seen in those children given four 100,000–200,000 IU supplements of vitamin A (the lower amount for those less than a year old) during an eight-month period. On further investigation, the researchers discovered that the reduction in diarrhea occurred only in children who were very malnourished. For children who were not starving, vitamin A supplementation actually increased the risk of diarrhea compared with the placebo group. The vitamin A-supplemented children also had a 67% increased risk of coughing and rapid breathing, and signs of further lung infection, although this problem did not appear in children infected with the AIDS virus. These findings should be of concern to American parents, whose children are not usually infected with HIV or severely malnourished. Such relatively healthy children fared poorly in the African trial in terms of both the risk of diarrhea and the risk of continued lung problems. Vitamin A provided no benefit to the well-nourished kids. Therefore, it makes sense not to give vitamin A supplements to children unless there is a special reason to do so, such as the presence of a condition causing malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease).

What Are Star Ratings
×
Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Holistic Options

Other integrative approaches that may be helpful: Acupuncture may be useful for the treatment of diarrhea, particularly in infants. A preliminary study of acupuncture treatment in 1,050 cases of infantile diarrhea found 95% were relieved with one to three treatments.50 Similar results have been reported in other preliminary trials51,52 and case reports.53,54 A controlled trial of acupuncture for the treatment of infantile diarrhea compared scalp acupuncture or traditional body acupuncture with drug therapy, primarily antibiotics. The cure rate for scalp and body acupuncture was significantly higher (90% and 89%) than that of drug treatment (46%).55

References

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2. Bhan MK, Bhandari N. The role of zinc and vitamin A in persistent diarrhea among infants and young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1998;26:446-53 [review].

3. Crane JK, Hoque KM. Zinc for infectious diarrhea in developed countries: should we be sprinkling our own lawns? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008;46:484-5.

4. Sarker SA, Casswall TH, Mahalanabis D, et al. Successful treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children with immunoglobulin from immunized bovine colostrum. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17:1149-54.

5. Mitra AK, Mahalanabis D, Ashraf H, et al. Hyperimmune cow colostrum reduces diarrhoea due to rotavirus: a double- blind, controlled clinical trial. Acta Paediatr 1995;84:996-1001.

6. Okhuysen PC, Chappell CL, Crabb J, et al. Prophylactic effect of bovine anti-Cryptosporidium hyperimmune colostrum immunoglobulin in healthy volunteers challenged with Cryptosporidium parvum. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:1324-9.

7. Greenberg PD, Cello JP. Treatment of severe diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum with oral bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in patients with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996;13:348-54.

8. Casswall TH, Sarker SA, Albert MJ, et al. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in infants in rural Bangladesh with oral immunoglobulins from hyperimmune bovine colostrum. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998;12:563-8.

9. Huppertz HI, Rutkowski S, Busch DH, et al. Bovine colostrum ameliorates diarrhea in infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E. Coli, and E. coli expressing intimin and hemolysin. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999;29:452-6.

10. Warny M, Fatimi A, Bostwick EF, et al. Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-clostridium difficile retains C difficile toxin neutralising activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut 1999;44:212-7.

11. Brines RD, Brock JH. The effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin on the in vitro antimicrobial and iron-binding properties of lactoferrin in human milk and bovine colostrum. Unusual resistance of human apolactoferrin to proteolytic digestion. Biochim Biophys Acta 1983;759:229-35.

12. Loeb H, Vandenplas Y, Wursch P, Guesry P. Tannin-rich pod for treatment of acute-onset diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1989;8:480-5.

13. Eherer AH, Porter J, Fordtran JS. Effect of psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, and wheat bran on secretory diarrhea induced by phenolphthalein. Gastroenterol 1993;104:1007-12.

14. Quartarone G. Role of PHGG as a dietary fiber: a review article. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2013 Dec;59:329-40.

15. Danczak E. Glucosamine and plant lectins in autistic spectrum disorders: an initial report on 6 children with uncontrolled diarrhoea. J Nutr Environ Med2004;14:327-330.

16. Yalcin SS, Yurdakok K, Tezcan I, Oner L. Effect of glutamine supplementation on diarrhea, interleukin-8 and secretory immunoglobulin A in children with acute diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2004;38:494-501.

17. Eherer AH, Porter J, Fordtran JS. Effect of psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, and wheat bran on secretory diarrhea induced by phenolphthalein. Gastroenterol 1993;104:1007-12.

18. Koch J, Tuveson J, Carlson T, Schmidt J. SB-300: a new and effective therapy for HIV-associated diarrhea. Poster presented at the Seventh European Conference on Clinical Aspects and Treatment of HIV-Infection, Lisbon, Portugal, October 23-27, 1999.

19. DuPont HL, Tidmarsh G. An open label pilot study to investigate the safety and effectiveness of orally administered Provir (SP-303) capsules in the symptomatic treatment of acute nonspecific diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. South San Francisco, CA: Shaman Pharmaceuticals, 1998, unpublished.

20. Dicesare D, DuPont HL, Mathewson JJ, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of SP-303 in the symptomatic treatment of acute diarrhea among travelers to Mexico and Jamaica. Abstract presented at the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 36th Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, November 10, 1998.

21. Ettedgui G, Schael IP, Porter S, Pennington J. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-dose, phase II study to assess the safety and efficacy of SP-303 in the symptomatic treatment of acute diarrhea among adult residents of Venezuela: oral administration of 125 mg, 250 mg, or 500 mg of SP-303 given every 6 hours for 48 hours. South San Francisco, CA: Shaman Pharmaceuticals, 1998, unpublished.

22. Holodniy M, Koch J, Mistal M, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study to assess the safety and efficacy of orally administered SP-303 for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:3267-73.

23. Koch J. A phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multi-center study of SP-303 (Provir™) in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Posters presented at the 13th international AIDS Conference in Durba, South Africa, July 14, 2000.

24. Khin-Maung-U, Myo-Khin, Nyunt-Nyunt-Wai, et al. Clinical trial of berberine in acute watery diarrhoea. Br Med J 1985;291:1601-5.

25. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994, 51-4.

26. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988, 101-2.

27. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 209.

28. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994, 51-4.

29. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988, 101-2.

30. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 209.

31. Eherer AH, Porter J, Fordtran JS. Effect of psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, and wheat bran on secretory diarrhea induced by phenolphthalein. Gastroenterol 1993;104:1007-12.

32. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994, 51-4.

33. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988, 101-2.

34. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 209.

35. Achterrath-Tuckerman U, Kunde R, et al. Pharmacological investigations with compounds of chamomile. V. Investigations on the spasmolytic effect of compounds of chamomile and Kamillosan® on isolated guinea pig ileum. Planta Med 1980;39:38-50.

36. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 209.

37. Haffejee IE. Effect of oral folate on duration of acute infantile diarrhoea. Lancet 1988;2:334-5 [letter].

38. Ashraf H, Rahman MM, Fuchs GJ, Mahalanabis D. Folic acid in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Acta Pædiatr 1998;87:1113-5.

39. Khin-Maung-U, Myo-Khin, Nyunt-Nyunt-Wai, et al. Clinical trial of berberine in acute watery diarrhoea. Br Med J 1985;291:1601-5.

40. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds). The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 166-7.

41. Konig M, Scholz E, Hartmann R, et al. Ellagitannins and complex tannins from Quercus petraea bark. J Nat Prod 1994;57:1411-5.

42. Schilcher H. Phytotherapy in Paediatrics. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Scientific Publishers, 1997, 49-50.

43. Khin-Maung-U, Myo-Khin, Nyunt-Nyunt-Wai, et al. Clinical trial of berberine in acute watery diarrhoea. Br Med J 1985;291:1601-5.

44. Weiss RF. Meuss AR, trans. Herbal Medicine. Gothenberg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1985:180-2.

45. Hoffmann D. The New Holistic Herbal, 3rd ed. Shaftesbury, Dorset, UK: Element, 1990:223.

46. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994, 51-4.

47. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988, 101-2.

48. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 209.

49. Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Pediatr 2000;137:660-7.

50. Su Z. Acupuncture treatment of infantile diarrhea: a report of 1050 cases. J Tradit Chin Med 1992;12:120-1.

51. Feng WL. Acupuncture treatment for 30 cases of infantile chronic diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med 1989;9:106-7.

52. Lin YC. Observation of therapeutic effects of acupuncture treatment in 170 cases of infantile diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med 1987;7:203-4.

53. Cao Y. Personal experience on acupuncture treatment of diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med 1990;10:163-7.

54. Cao Y. Personal experience on acupuncture treatment of diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med 1990;10:251-6.

55. Lin Y, Zhou Z, Shen W, et al. Clinical and experimental studies on shallow needling technique for treating childhood diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med 1993;13:107-14.

56. James JM, Burks AW. Food-associated gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr 1996;8:471-5 [review].

57. Bowie MD, Hill ID, Mann MD. Response of severe infantile diarrhoea to soya-based feeds. S Afr Med J 1988;73:343-5.

58. Babb RR. Coffee, sugars and chronic diarrhea. Postgrad Med 1984;75:82, 86-7.

59. Hyams JS, Etienne NL, Leichtner AM, Theuer RC. Carbohydrate malabsorption following fruit juice ingestion in young children. Pediatr 1988;82:64-8.

60. Barness LA. Safety considerations with high ascorbic acid dosage. Ann NY Acad Sci 1975;258:523-8 [review].

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The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2021.

Copyright © 2021 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2021.