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Health Condition

Cardiovascular Disease Overview

Healthy Lifestyle Tips

Both smoking22 and exposure to secondhand smoke23 increase cardiovascular disease risk.

Moderate exercise protects both lean and obese individuals from cardiovascular disease.24


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4. Harchaoui KE, Visser ME, Kastelein JJ, Stroes ES, Dallinga-Thie GM. Triglycerides and cardiovascular risk. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2009;5(3):216-22.

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9. Lehtonen HM, Suomela JP, Tahvonen R, et al. Different berries and berry fractions have various but slightly positive effects on the associated variables of metabolic diseases on overweight and obese women. Eur J ClinNutr 2011;65:394-401.

10. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database citation: Zhang MS, et al. Treatment of ischemic heart diseases with flavonoids of Hippophaerhamnoides. Chinese J Cardiol 1987;15:97-9.Pubmed citation: Zhang MS. A control trial of flavonoids of Hippophaerhamnoides L. in treating ischemic heart disease. ZhonghuaXinXue Guan Bing ZaZhi 1987;15:97-9 [in Chinese].

11. Larmo P, Alin J, Salminen E, et al. Effects of sea buckthorn berries on infections and inflammation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J ClinNutr 2008;62:1123-30.

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14. Girgih A, Udenigwe C, Aluko R. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2013;68:39-46. doi: 10.1007/s11130-013-0340-6.

15. Lee M, Park S, Han J, et al. The effects of hempseed meal intake and linoleic acid on Drosophila models of neurodegenerative diseases and hypercholesterolemia. Mol Cells 2011;31:337-42. doi: 10.1007/s10059-011-0042-6. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

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17. Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Sacco RL, Anderson, CAM, Antman EM, Campbell N, Dunbar SB, et al. Sodium, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2012;126:2880-89.

18. Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Sacco RL, Anderson, CAM, Antman EM, Campbell N, Dunbar SB, et al. Sodium, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2012;126:2880-89.

19. Get the Facts: Sodium and the Dietary Guidelines. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available from URL:

20. Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, Ard JD, Comuzzie AG, Donato KA, Hu FB, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014;129:S102-S138.

21. Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, de Jesus JM, Miller NH, Hubbard VS, Lee I-M, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129 S76-S99.

22. Freund KM, Belanger AJ, D'Agostino RB, Kannel WB. The health risks of smoking. The Framingham Study: 34 years of follow-up. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:417-24.

23. Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence. BMJ 1997;315:973-80.

24. Lee CD, Blair SN, Jackson AS. Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:373-80.

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